admin@kcseforecast.com

+2541026301456

Q&A- Q&A-Application Areas of ICT

List any two components of an expert system                                (2marks)

  • Knowledge base – is the systems’ database of knowledge about a particular subject. It contains relevant facts, beliefs, assumptions and procedures for solving a particular problem
  • Inference engine – this is the software that controls the search for knowledge in the knowledge base and produces conclusions. It takes the problem posed by the user and seeks to analyze it in order to arrive at a conclusion.
  • User interface- this is the display screen that enables the user interact with the system.

State Advantages of online booking

  • It prevents double-booking which could happen in paper-based booking system
  • The customer gets immediate feedback on the availability of seats
  • The customer can make  booking at any time of the day
  • Emails provided by customers during booking can be used by companies for advertisement

One characteristic of a robot is its mechanical structure.
State two other characteristics of a robot

  • It has electrical components.
  • It is programmable.

 

Suggest two advantages of using robots, instead of humans, to build cars in the factory.

  • more efficient than a human
  • more accurate than a human
  • can lift larger and heavier equipment than a human
  • can replace humans working in a dangerous environment
  • reduces running costs, such as wages and overheads
  • can produce consistent results/output
  • can work 24 hours a day // do not need to take breaks.

 

State two places where robots are used.

  • car factories/factories
  • chemical/nuclear factories
  • production lines
  • warehouses
  • deep in the ocean/down mines
  • on other planets/in space
  • road junctions

State two benefits of using robots

  • reduced labour costs/do not need paying
  • reduced cost of goods
  • improve speed of production/productivity
  • high degree of accuracy/precision/less errors
  • can operate where humans can not go
  • do not take breaks/holidays/get tired
  • work 24 hrs a day
  • reduce accidents at traffic lights
  • improve traffic flow
  • can work in dangerous conditions

A supermarket uses point of sale (POS) terminals at the checkout for scanning barcodes on the products.

(a) State two items of data that are stored on the barcode.

(b) Describe how the computer system checks that the barcode has been read correctly.

(c) State the type of file access that is used to get the price from the central computer.

(d) Explain how the system updates the file when an item has been sold.

(a) State two items of data that are stored on the barcode.

  • check digit
  • product number/item number/code
  • country of origin
  • manufacturers number/code
  • weight
  • price

(b) Describe how the computer system checks that the barcode has been read correctly.

  • check digit calculation is performed on the check digit, remainder = 0 if the barcode has been read correctly
  • weights and modulus 11 and use remainder
  • or subtractions and addition and use answer


(c) State the type of file access that is used to get the price from the central computer.

  • random/direct/online

(d) Explain how the system updates the file when an item has been sold.

  • search file/master file using barcode number/product code and decrease number in stock/increase quantity sold

Give two benefits for the supermarket manager of using point of sale (POS) terminals.

  • more accurate/improved stock control/recording system/automatic
  • reordering/automatic updating of stock file
  • less staff/wages needed
  • sales statistics now available
  • faster throughput
  • itemised receipt
  • records every transaction
  • records staff work rates
  • less pilfering by staff/easier to identify pilfering
  • less errors
  • faster calculations
  • links to EFTPOS

State two benefits of using computerised traffic control systems.

  • Better/improved traffic flow control
  • reduces accidents
  • keeps delays to a minimum
  • reduces pollution
  • cars use less fuel

State two benefits of using computerised traffic control systems

  • Detecting congestion.
  • Synchronizing activity between traffic lights.
  • Updating traffic light timing in real time.
  • Updating and informing drivers of ideal speeds.
  •  Prioritizing transportation flow.
  •  Reduce congestion and time spent on the road
  • By reducing congestion it will decrease pollution
  • Prioritize traffic based on changes in traffic conditions in real time.
  • This system is also helpful to reduce infrastructure damage. It is possible to identify overloaded vehicles and provide them with appropriate ways or roads, which will reduce road damage.

Describe the input, processing and output from a computerised traffic-control system.

input

  • from sensors
  • from camera images [Max 2]

processing

  • analyse data from sensors
  • calculate average traffic flow/speed
  • send signals to adjust change lights/timing

output

  • change lights at the junction
  • change timing plan

Describe what the traffic control program should do when an emergency occurs.

give uninterrupted path through the system of linked traffic lights/
green link - wave
turn all lights to red
activate emergency generator
alarm

Name two other input/output devices used at the POS terminal apart from keyboard and barcode reader and give a use for each device.

device: beeper/loud speaker
use: to indicate barcode correctly read/error in reading barcode
device: (LCD) screen/monitor
use: to show prices and other information about goods
device: touch screen
use: to show prices and other information about goods/to select items that need to be
weighed/identified
device: weighing machine
use: to find weight of loose items (e.g. fruit) to enable pricing
device: (magnetic) card reader/CHIP and PIN reader
use: to read customer’s debit/credit card/enable customer to pay for goods using a
credit or debit card
device: printer
use: to print receipts

Describe two features you would expect to see in the expert system’s interactive user interface.

– multiple choice/yes-no answers
– easy to understand interface e.g. use of icons/drop down menus etc.
– output shown as % probabilities of fault

Apart from the user interface, name three other components that make up a typical expert system.

– knowledge base
– rule(s) base
– inference engine
– explanation system
– (expert system) shel

State what is meant by Computer Aided Design (CAD).

Give three different applications that make use of CAD.

Name three specialist input/output devices used in CAD.

software that can be used to design new products/amend existing products
makes use of features such as 2D, 3D, wire frames, library of parts, links to CAM

Give three different applications that make use of CAD.

aerospace
architecture
designing cars
designing consumer goods
chemical/nuclear plant design
designing electronic circuit boards
ergonomic design
landscape/garden design

Name three specialist input/output devices used in CAD.

large monitor/screen with hi-res
touch screen
plotter
space mouse/space ball/4D device
3D glasses (in some applications)
light pen
graphics tablet
3D printer
3D scanner

(a) Name two pieces of hardware needed to enable video-conferencing to take place using a standard computer system.

(b) State one piece of specialist software needed to carry out video-conferencing.

(a)

webcam
speakers
microphone
broadband modem

(b)

use of CODEC (converts/compresses analogue data into digital data)
echo cancellation s/ware (allows talking in real time/keeps everything in sync)
compression s/ware for video/audio
s/ware to access broadband/networking

State advantages and disadvantages of video conferencing

Advantages

immediate response to questions/queries
can see each other watch body language etc.
easier to have several participants (would be difficult using instant messaging if
several people involved)

Disadvantages

need for expensive equipment/high set up costs
sometimes synchronisation problems make it difficult for delegates
need to train people to use the new technology
greater use of bandwidth

Give one reason why use of video-conferencing has increased over the last ten years.

faster communications now widely available
safety reasons, e.g. increase in terrorist attacks on international flights
reduced transportation/accommodation/hardware costs
environmental issues, e.g. reduced carbon footprint
increase in multinational working

Aeroplanes now use Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to determine their location.

Describe how the computer on board the aeroplane uses GPS to find its exact location

Give two benefits of using GPS in this application

Describe how the computer on board the aeroplane uses GPS to find its exact location

satellites transmit signals to onboard computers
computers receive/interpret these signals
system depends on very accurate timing/use of atomic clocks
each satellite transmits data indicating location and time
computer in aeroplane calculates location based on at least three satellites
at least 24 satellites in operation at any one time
position accurate to within one metre
can also calculate altitude of aeroplane
ref to “triangulation”:

Give two benefits of using GPS in this application

safer as the known location is exact/more accurate
reduces the possibility of pilot error
allows accurate estimation of arrival time
display and guide the pilot to the nearest airport in case of emergency

Sarah uses a range of computing devices to complete her studies, including a desktop computer at home, a laptop at school and her mobile phone. Outline two advantages of cloud computing for Sarah.

Cloud computing refers to the delivery of on-demand computing resources over the internet. Instead of relying on a local server or personal computer, cloud computing allows users to access and utilize a wide range of computing services and resources hosted on remote servers.

  • Sarah could keep all of her files in the cloud and easily access these with her devices. This way she does not have to keep different version on her desktop and laptop.
  • Flexibility she could access the files from other devices such as the library etc.
  • Disaster recovery if she accidently dropped or damaged a device – all files would be easy to access.