Form 2 History and Government Notes


Definition of trade

It’s the buying and selling goods or exchange of goods for mutual benefit.

Origin and development of trade

There were exchanges between countries of different environment in more favourable surrounding; there was an organised trade between hunting and gathering communities and their more advanced neighbour.

In Africa it was through the production and exchange of commodities such as cattle, salt-smoked fish, kola nuts, minerals and metals which were instrumental in maintaining trade flow, this shows that food was more important. As people became more and more advanced, so did their needs, like clothing, improved methods of farming, improved crops and livestock and the use of modern tools in cultivation.

Modern civilisation has also contributed to world insecurity, which has lead to manufacture of weapons such as guns and ammunition.

Methods of trade

Barter trade Barter trade is the oldest method of trade in the history of human civilization.

Barter involves the exchange of goods and services for other goods or services, like game meat with agricultural produces, cloth, horses, salt, copper foe gold, slaves, ivory, kola-nuts, animal skins and ostrich feathers. These exchanges could take the form of silent trade or dumb barter. This is where is no common language and also in a form of sign language.


It’s suitable where there is no currency


It’s not easy to establish the actual value of the goods

Some goods could not be divided into smaller quantities

Lack of double coincidence of wants.( similar demand) Bulky and perishable commodities had poor transportation

Lack of a common language

Currency trade

It’s the use of money to purchase commodities or to pay for services. Currency is a medium of exchange accepted by a community as a measure of value for goods and services.

Important characteristics of currency

It should be accepted by society

It should be stable and retain value without depreciating

It should be durable and of quality to be kept for a long time

It should be divisible into smaller units It should be convertible into other  currencies

It should be portable to allow easy transportation

Major modern currencies United kingdom-   sterling pound

USA- dollar

Germany- deutsche mark (DM)

France – franc (FF)

Japan – yen

European – EURO


  • It can be divided into smaller units
  • It is possible to store wealth since money is a store of wealth
  • It is portable since it’s not bulky
  • It is a measure of value/ worth of goods and services
  • It has intrinsic value as currencies are generally made from precious and rare metals


The value of the currency may fluctuate depending on the strength of a county’s economy

Types of trade
  • Local trade
  • Regional trade
  • International trade
Local trade

This is the exchange of goods at the village level within a geographical region. It includes neighbouring villages; one village could produce baskets and exchange them for pots from another village.


it began due to Climatic and environment conditions. These affect the distribution of various kinds of animals and plants. Situations arise where peoples requirements are not found in the locality Uneven distribution of natural resources. No regions have all the natural resources they require Specialization, some skills were preserving for a few people, like iron-working, pottery and cloth- making. The people who didn’t have such skills acquired what they could not produce through trade. Surplus production. There was also need for local demand; people exchanged the excess of what they had in plenty with what they needed from other communities.


Local trade developed in order to satisfy the need of goods that were not available in a village and production of surplus goods made it necessary to sell what was not required to the neighbouring villages, as continuous supply and demand of goods led to further development of trade. Peaceful co-existence of neighbouring communities also contributed to development of trade. Regional and international trade further encouraged the development Organisation It was organised between individuals, families, clans and alter communities which exchanged trade goods like grains, pots, iron implements, skins and livestock. It was organised along a common clan or tribal border on a regular basis such as weekly or fortnightly Trade routes facilitated the easy movements of trade It was conducted mainly using the barter method

Characteristics of local trade

  • It was carried out within a small area
  • The range of goods was limited to availability
  • The numbers of traders were few
  • It was the basis of regional and international trade
  • It was done by small- scale trade


  • It promoted good relations between the communities involved.
  • There was interaction between communities leading to the adoption of new cultural practices
  • There was intermarriage
  • Development of trading centres which grew into towns
  • There was availability of goods and materials
  • Early industries were established to produce items of trade
  • Chiefdoms emerge as a result of levies and tributes paid to traders
  • It provided a base for regional and international trade.
Regional trade

It’s the exchange of goods conducted between two or more geographical regions like trans-Saharan trade.

The trans-Saharan trade

It was conducted between North Africa and West Africa. It derived its name from crossing of the Saharan desert by traders.


It’s not clear when this trade started, merchants were travelling o n horse drawn chariots between north and West Africa, due to increased aridity, the volume of trade decreased, but with the introduction of the camel from Asia the trade was revived. The Arabic who originally settled in parts of North Africa and from there they started moving south, first as traders and later as settlers.


The camel which was used as a means of transport made it easier to travel and conduct trade across the hot and hostile desert as the camel could withstand extremely harsh conditions.

The availability of trade commodities like, gold, ivory, slaves, leather, kola-nuts, pepper and gum were readily available in the West Africa. Similarly the commodities such as salt, horses, weapons, iron tools, cloth, silk, beads, cowries shells, glass ware and dries fruit.

Strong kingdom. There were strong kingdoms like Ghana, Mali and Songhai. The rulers ensured that the trade prospered and that trade routes were secure.

The tuaregs. They served as guides to the caravans as they were conversant with the desert routs. They guarded the caravans against hostile desert communities who sought to rob them; they acted as middlemen and maintained oases through providing food stuffs.

Wealthy merchants. They financed the caravans as an investment that hoped would bring those profits.

Oases. This lead to growth of trans-Saharan trade through refreshment and replenishing supplies.

Islam. As islam spread through the region, it served to unify the traders as brothers and sisters.


Wealthy merchants in the North African financed the caravans. It was done where merchants gathered commodities and commits them to their employees who would organise caravans and they would commit their merchandise as loans to their traders who would then organise caravans. The traders would collect commodities that were in demand in West African such as horses and weapons. The trader’s would team up with other traders to form a caravan. The caravans would be made up of several hundreds of people. The traders would engage the services of the tuareg or Berber guides, also known as takshifs who would guide the caravans to the locations with the highest demand at the time. During their trips, the traders would engage local agents who would serve as intermediaries. There were two types of trade routes used namely, the main or primary routes and the secondary routes.

The western route. It began at fez in morocco and went through Sijilmasa, then Taghaza, Timbukutu, Audaghast and ended in the Niger belt.

The central route. This route began in Tunis through Ghat, Agades, Kano and ended within the Hausa state.

The eastern route. This route started from Tripoli then went through Murzuk ,Bilma and finally ended at Njimi in Karnem Bornu.

Difficulties encountered by traders

The journey was long and tiring, sometimes the caravan traders ran out of supplies for themselves and animals

The caravans encountered insecurity in the desert like robbers and terrorisms which were hostile

The routes in the desert changed frequently, the caravans would occasionally get lost

The desert climate was harsh with very high temperatures during the day and very low at night

There was a language barrier between the traders and the desert communities

Blinding sand storms hampered the progress of the caravan

The caravans were always danger of attack by various desert creatures such as scorpions and snakes

The takshifs would turn against the employers and attack and rob them

There was rivalry among traders over the monopoly and control of trade and trade routes

Factors that lead to decline of the trans-Saharan trade

  • The gold and salt fields got exhausted reducing supply
  • Fall of empires like Songhai caused political instability and insecurity in the region
  • External invasion by morocco caused destruction of some commercial centres like Gao and Timbukutu
  • The rise and growth of trans-Atlantic trade rendered trans-Saharan trade unpopular
  • European trading activities along West African coast undermine the trade
  • Abolition of slave trade from the 1840s denied the traders a main trade` item’
  • The tuaregs changed their roles as guides and became robbers of the caravans
  • The desert condition like sand storms and desert insects.


  • The trade provided an important link between western Sudan and North Africa
  • It stimulated the growth of small settlement which later grew into big ancient towns
  • It created a new social class in western Sudan
  • The trade brought about islamisation of people in West Africa
  • New types of goods were introduced to the people of West Africa
  • They built schools and university were Arabic literature and philosophy were taught

C) International trade

It refers to trade between countries outside geographical regions. It can also be define as trade which involves travel across seas and oceans.

The trans-Atlantic trade

It also referred to as triangular trade, because it was conducted between Africa, America and Europe across the Atlantic Ocean


It began in 15th century as a result of Portuguese and Spanish exploration. At first Portuguese took slave to Europe, where they worked as domestic servants. In the 16th c. with the discovery and colonization of America, slaves were exported there from west Africa by European merchants. Europeans in Portugal, Spain, Holland, France and Britain started plantation of sugar, tobacco and cotton in the lands. This created an agent need for cheap labour as indigenous red Indians were un willing and un fit to work in the plantation. The solution to labour problem was found in Africa.

Why African slave were more preferred than other races

The supply of African slave was high They were cheaper to acquire They were stronger than the European and Red Indian labourers

They were regarded as immune to tropical diseas Their complexion prevented them from escaping them easily


This was influenced by the activities of Portuguese as they were to sail to West Africa and established trade links. They captured a few Africans slave whom they took too Europe to work as domestic servants. they were shipped to Hispaniola in 1510. The successes of their experiment lead to more slaves being shipped directly to America from Africa

Factors for the development of trans-Atlantic trade

  • European nations hand links with West Africa.
  • African chiefs had developed a taste for European goods such as glass, clothes, rum and fir –arms
  • The introduction of fire-arms in West Africa made it easier to raid communities for slaves and to conduct wars of conquest in order to capture slaves.
  • The establishment of mines and plantations and in new lands increased the demand for slaves
  • The increased demand of raw materials by European industries resulted in an increased in demand for slaves in America
  • There was competition and rivalry among European nations to control the trade The trade was lucrative and profitable to the merchants.
  • Ship – building technology improved with building of larger ships with a greater capacity for such as slaves.


It was conducted between three continents that are Africa, America and Europe; it involved Portugal, Spain, Holland, Britain and France. From Africa, slaves were shipped to plantations in the Caribbean and the America while raw materials including gold, pepper, ivory, hides, gum, bees wax, rice and ginger were sent to Europe. From plantations in America and Caribbean, raw materials such as sugar, tobacco and cotton were sent to factories in Europe for processing. The slaves were the main commodity that were shipped from the West African coast and destined for plantations in America and Caribbean. Cheap manufactured goods were shipped from European ports to middlemen on the West African coast. The middlemen held the merchandise in trust and used it to trade with the slaves captors. This lead to growth of the West African ports such as Accra, Lagos and Dakar. When European traders arrived in the West Africa, agents of the local kings collected fees from them after which they were entertained.

Methods used to acquired slaves

  • They were sold by rulers such as chiefs and kings to the slave traders
  • The captives of war were sold to the slave traders
  • They were exchanged with other commodities e.g gun and cloth
  • Some lonely travellers were kidnapped by the slave traders
  • Communities raided their neighbours and captured people who were sold to slave traders
  • Children were enticed with gifts liked sweets and then captured to be sold to slave traders
  • Debtors were sold to slave traders to pay debts through a method known as panyarring
Reasons for the decline There was decline in demand of sugar as France began producing cheaper sugar that penetrated and dominated the European market. In the 1776, the U.S.A  attained political independence from Britain, a move that deprived the British of profits made from the slave trade During the industrial revolution in Europe, machines replaced human labour as they were more efficient. The Christian missionaries began to advocate for the abolition of slave trade, as did humanitarians in Britain during 19th c. Influential economists like Adam smith advanced arguments for a free enterprise economy; men were less productive when enslaved than free men. The U.S.A. experienced a civil war between the north and south over the institution of slavery, the north which was against slavery won the war leading to the abolition of slavery in the U.S.A. Leading Africans actively campaigned against slave trade. King nzinga mbemba of Congo wrote a letter to the king of Portugal requesting him to stop his men buying slave in the Congo. Impact The trade led to the development of ports like Bristol and Liverpool. It contributed to the emergence of a class of wealthy traders who invested in plantation. It led to settlement of Africans in America. There was depopulation in Africa as slaves were captured and taken to America. Slave raiding led to an increased in inter-tribal wars, the wars increased insecurity. Kingdoms like the Fante, Asente, Dahomey and Oyo which controlled the trade became very powerful. There was economic decline because the young and able were taken away, leaving the weak and old. Slave raiding involved the destruction of property; villages were often burnt down and left in ruins. There was decline in traditional industries due to introduction of goods such as clothes and glassware at the expense of local ones. The trans-Saharan trade decline as goods were diverted towards the West African coast from them was exported overseas. Long- lasting trade links were established between West Africa, Europe and America. Slave market and ports like Lagos and Elmina from where slave were shipped, developed into urban centres along the coast of West Africa. Slave trade weakened African societies to the level that they could not effectively resist colonisation. The abolition of trade lead to the creation of Sierra Leone and Liberia as settlements for freed slaves


Definition of trade It’s from two wards; Trans which means across, beyond, over or to the far side of and port meaning the carrying of goods. It’s therefore the carrying of goods and people from one place to another. Traditional forms of transport These are human port rage, pack of animals, raft, boats and sailing ships Land transport Human port rage This was carried on heads, shoulders and backs Advantages It was readily available It was cheap methods It was flexible because it hard no fixed times for departure and arrival Disadvantages It was time-consuming as movement was slow There porter could carry only a small load It was tiresome, forcing the porter to make frequent rest Porters were affected by adverse weather condition Pack and draught animals Animals were initially domesticated only for food, later they did carry goods and people. At first the load was placed directly on the animals back, later, some of the animals began to pull vehicles. Animals like ox, donkey, horse, mule, elephant, camel, reindeer and dogs Advantages Animals are cheap to maintain since they require only feeding Accidents are rare since animals do not over speed Animals can be used in accessible areas Some animals can sense danger by sniffing out an enemy from a distance. Animals do not need fuel apart from teaching and training Disadvantages Animals may be attacked by wild animals It is slow and tedious mode of transport The amounts of load which animals can carry are low when compared to motor vehicle. Pack animals are stubborn when tired or heavily loaded The animals can only cover a limited distance Vehicles without wheels The earliest vehicles were crude contraptions without wheels. As they were cumbersome to drag along the ground, they moved slowly and carried small loads. The sleigh (sledge) The sleigh glided on runners placed from back to front. It was commonly used in the snow terrains of northern Europe and North America. It was initially pulled by people; later teams of dogs were harnessed to it. The reindeer was also used in some parts of the arctic and sub- arctic regions. The travois It was v-shaped with the narrower side harnessed to a horse or dogs using a pole. The broader side which was dragged along the ground, had cross-pieces that served as a base for the load. The travois was most commonly used in the North America because of its treeless, dry and flat terrain. The sedan chair This was a special chair fitted with two poles running on the sides from back to front. Four men carried it on these poles. The development of wheel The idea of the wheel was developed from the use of wooden rollers. These loose lengths of logs placed under a load. The load was then pulled forward over the rollers. As each roller was fixed at the back. It was carried and placed again at the front. The wheel in Mesopotamia It was first used by Sumerians in Mesopotamia about 5000 years ago. It was solid, heavy and fixed to the axle. The spoke wheel was developed around 2500 bc. It was used on a horse-drawn chariot, making them lighter and swifter. These were the 1st vehicles to be used in warfare. Later rubber strip was added on the outside. A metal strip, instead of rubber, was introduced by Assyrians. All these made the wooden spoke wheel more durable. It was also used in shadoofs, a pulley system with which farms were irrigated in Mesopotamia. Impact of the wheel in Mesopotamia It enabled the Sumerians built war chariots which increased mobility of the solders. It enhanced transportation of people and goods. The chariots gave the Sumerians solders height advantage over their enemies, enabling them to fight more efficient. It promoted trade through efficiency of transportation of goods and traders It facilitated the construction of roads It enhance the making of pots of high quality It promoted early agriculture as the wheel was used on shadoof for irrigation. The wheel in china They invented the wheel about 4000 years ago. They used the potter’s wheel to produce fine porcelain vessels. They were fixed on horse- drawn chariots and carts drawn water buffaloes for carrying people and goods. The wheel in Africa It spread through Egypt from south East Asia when the country was invaded by the Hyksos in 1800 BC. The invaders used horse drawn chariots. When they were defeated, the Egyptians used the wheel to make their own carts, this spread to other parts of Africa. The wheel in Europe The Greeks were the 1st Europeans to use the wheel, during the Olympics which were held every four years; one event was a fourteen- kilometre chariot race. Military chariots were 1st used during the reign of Alexander the great. Using horse –drawn chariots and wheeled siege to wars, the Greeks conquered turkey, Persia, parts of India and Egypt. The Romans learned the use of the wheel from the Greeks. They improved two- wheeled chariots for sport, postal services and warfare. Water transport The 1st means of water transport was just a log to which a man could cling, the early people must have discovered that they could hold onto a tree trunk, remain afloat and actually be transported. The earliest vessels Rafts It’s made up of several logs tied together. This helped to improve on the stability of the log. A long pole reached the bottom of the river was to propel and steer the raft. However, it was still difficult to move upstream. The dug-out canoe The earliest boats were simply dug-out tree trunk. The hallowed out section provided room for passengers. These were used for crossing rivers over shallow waters and fishing , but they were not unstable. Oar-driven boats Oars were used to push or row the boat against water currents thus increasing the speed and power. They were used by Egyptians, Romans, Phoenicians and Greeks. Sailing boats They were propelled by wind; it was done by trapping winds in cloth that was attached to a mast on the boat. They had greater speed than oar-driven boats. Sailing ship They were larger and bigger than the sailing boats. A mast was erected in the centre of the vessel and a square sail attached on it. Limitations of early forms of water transport They could easily sink during strong wind and storms. They could only move down stream as their movement relied on water current. They carried only a few passengers and goods at a time Passengers and goods were exposed to the elements of weather. Development in modern means of transport Road transport Roman roads The 1st road to be built was by Romans about 312bc. The main aim was to ensure rapid movement of troops and administrators. Every region was accompanied by an engineer to supervise construction and maintenance. The building was done by soldiers, assisted by local labourers. The roads had foundations of up to one and half meters deep and made with whatever local material that was available, usually heavy rocks were thrown in 1st, followed by other layers of smaller stones and rubble. There was a drain on each side and kerbstones to prevent the surface from sliding outwards. The 1st roman road called the apian way, connected Rome and Capua, a distance of 209km. at the height of the empire; over 85000km of roads had been built. Characteristics of roman roads They were constructed straight They were raised high above the ground to avoid flooding. They were well drained on each side They were built with bridges across rivers and tunnels through hills. Macadam roads John macadam (1756-1830) devised a faster but cheaper way of constructing roads. He realised that ordinary ground could still be used to make good roads if it was kept dry. He removed only the top soil and then put three layers of small, broken stones, carriage wheels were used to press the stones tightly and grit to break off and bind everything together. The surface was curved to allow water to run off into ditches on the sides. The soil underneath remained dry and made the road durable. These roads were later improved by adding tar to produce a water proof surface called tar-Mac. The word was coined from the word tar, and from macadam’s name. Advantage of macadam roads. They were all- weather roads The roads were wide hence could accommodate more traffic They were durable They were straight hence reduced accidents They had a smooth surface hence the motoring surface was comfortable. The bicycle It means two wheels; it was invented in 1700 by a Frenchman de sivrac. It has two wheels were placed in front of the other on a framework rather than side by side on a single axle. The velocipede It’s also known as the hobby horse, this kind of a bicycle was 1st used in 1820. There was no transmission of power to the wheels. The rider sat on it and pushed it forward with his feet and some speed was built up. The penny farthing The name was derived from the British coins, the penny, and the farthing, because one wheel was bigger than the other. The rider transmitted power from pedals attached to the front bigger wheel over which the he sat. The safety bicycle It was developed from 1884. Chain gearing was invented by Englishman J.K Stanley. It consisted of two sprocket-wheels, the bigger one attached to the pedals in the centre and the smaller one to the rear wheel. Another Englishman, J.B Dunlop, invented the pneumatic tyres which replace the uncomfortable solid rubber ones. The last improvement was the invention of the free-wheel which allowed the rear wheel to rotate when the rider was not pedalling. The motor-cycle The motor-cycle is a motorised bicycle. The 1st was made by Gottlied Daimler in 1855. The frame was made stronger and wheels wider, an engine and a gear box were added to ease riding. It was faster than a bicycle and cheaper than an automobile, it could access rough terrain, carried only one passenger or a small load. The motor vehicle It was not a sudden invention of any one person. It was the result of a contribution of many people over several hundred years, in 1789, a French engineer, and Joseph Cugnot, built a three-wheeled vehicle powered by a steam engine. It moved at a slow, walking pace, although it could carry passengers, it was designed to transport cannons. In 1858 petroleum oil was discovered in the U.S.A in 1859, Frenchman Etienne Lenoir developed the internal combustion engine instead of steam, the engine used petroleum vapour which was ignited to give an internal explosion. An Australian, Marcu, built two vehicles but they were banned from the roads because they were too noisy. A German engineer, Nicolas Otto also made significant contributions to design of the engine. In 1886, Daimler built a four-wheeled car with a high-speed petrol engine. A converted horse-drawn carriage, this vehicle was the forerunner of the modern car. Towards the end of the 1880s, a French company, Panhard-levassor, bought the right to use Daimlers engine within a few years, their factory produced its 1st car. Advantages of road transport It is the cheapest form of transport over short distance Road transport is flexible Its faster compared to water and rail transport Can be used by many means e.g. human and animals Disadvantages of road transport Accidents are high on roads, leading to loss of lives. Traffic congestion leading to jams Exhaust fumes motor vehicles cause air pollution It is expensive to construct all weather roads. Rail transport It was developed from the idea of vehicles moving along a fixed track. The 1st railways were used in Germany from 16th c in the coal mines. The steam engine Thomas savery, a British engineer, designed and built the 1st steam- drive pump which was used to pump water out of coal mine. In 1780, a Scottish engineer, James watt developed a smaller, more efficient steam engine. 1n 1801, Richard Trevithick installed watts engine in a vehicle which ran on an ordinary road. In 1813, Christopher bracket and William Hedler made another steam engine, nickname puffing Billy because of the smoke it produced. The introduction of locomotion by George Stephenson and Robert which was the 1st steam locomotive to pull a passenger train along a public railway from Stockton to Burlington. The diesel engine In 1892, a German engineer, Rudolph diesel designed a heavy-oil engine to work on a compression ignition system. His engine, built in 1895, achieved compression far higher than that required for self-ignition in order to obtain the greatest possible efficiency. The electric engine The 1st electric railway system was built in Britain in 1883. Designed by Siemens brothers and john Hopkinson. Electric 240 volts, was picked up from a third rail. In U.S.A many instillations involving electric tramways were built in the 1890s. They were operated by power taken either from overhead cables or live rail. They were designed by F.J. Sprague and C.J van depoele. The trans-Siberian railway line. This is found in Russia. It was built in 1891 from Leningrad to Vladivostok on the shores of the Pacific Ocean The great American railway It is found in the U.S.A it starts on the Atlantic coast and stretches to the Pacific Ocean coast on the west. The Canadian pacific railway It is found in Canada. It was built in 1881 and links the eastern coast of the Atlantic Ocean to the western coast of the Pacific Ocean. Advantages of rail transport It is suitable for transportation of heavy bulky goods It is economical for transportation of goods and services over a long distance. Electric trains are a fast means of transport. It follows a regular timetable which enables passengers to plan their movement. It is safe means of transport as accidents are rare. Underground trains help to reduce traffic congestion on the roads. Disadvantages of railway transport It is expensive to construct railways and buy the wagons. Accidents though rare are always fatal when they occur. Diesel engines emit a lot of smoke leading to air pollution. Rail transport is heavily affected by terrain. Railway transport is not flexible and has to be supplemented by other means of transport. Impact of railway transport It has promoted urbanization as towns have developed along railway lines. It led to the development of international trade as bulky goods could be easily transported to the markets. It led to industrial revolution in Europe as raw materials could be transported to industrial and finished products to markets. It opened remote continental interiors of Africa, Asia and n. America for agricultural and mineral exploitation. It helped the colonialist to establish effective control over their colonies through quick movement of administrators and troops. Railway transport has offered employment to many people. It led to widespread migration and settlement of people. Water transport Steamships In the 18th c. it was discovered that steam power could be used to drive machines. In 1736, an Englishman, Jonathan hulls, built a boat driven by steam power. It was tested on the river Avon, but it was not a success. The 1st successful steam boat was built in 1783 by a Frenchman, Marquis de Jouffroy. It was driven by peddle-wheels, one on each side of the hull. In 1787, John Fitch, an American, built a steam boat driven by sis oars on each side. In 1790 he built another ship which could travel at 112km/h with it he began services on the Delaware River between Philadelphia and Trenton. Another was built by Scottish engineer, William Symington. His steamship was driven by two paddle wheels. Then Robert Fulton, an American, built the clermont, which was driven by two paddle-wheels. In 1807, the clermont began a regular passenger service between albanyon on the Hudson River and New York. A propeller under the ship replaced paddle-wheels. The 1st propeller steamer was the Archimedes, built in 1838. Three developments which increased the popularity of steamships included-: In 1854, John Elder invented an economical two –cylinder compound engine which cut fuel consumption by about 60%. The Suez Canal was opened in 1869; it shortened the route to the east by about 5000km. Coal stations were opened all along the main sea-routs. It was no longer necessary to carry a lot of fuel and so there was more cargo space. Development of modern ships. The modern cruise ship is a luxurious ship designed to offer entertainment to passengers as the ship takes a cruise in the ocean. These ships are about 3oom long and carry up to 2000 passengers Canals. A canal is a man-made water channel usually dug on a straight course. The main reason for the construction of the canals in Europe and North America was the poor conditions of the roads and also shorten distance. They also saves costs by reducing the distance this means they are cheap. Ship canals It’s deeper and can be used by ocean-going vessels. They were constructed to link the industrial centres to ports or to shorten routes, like the Manchester-Liverpool canal, the Suez Canal and Panama Canal. Advantages of water transport It enhanced the exploration of the world especially after the discovery of the magnetic compass It promoted trade through transportation of bulky goods between continents. It reduced the cost of transport by providing the cheapest means of transporting bulky goods over long distances. Promoted exploitation of natural resources under the water. Disadvantages of water transport Its slow means of moving passengers and cargo. Construction of port facilities is expensive. It can only be used by countries that are bordered by oceans, hence land-locked countries are disadvantaged. May lead to pollution of water through oil spills. Delays are caused by port congestion especially where adequate loading and unloading facilities are lacking. Impact of water transport It is a convenient means of transporting bulky goods It is a major source of employment It has boosted international trade It is a major source of government revenue. It has enhanced inter-continental connections It has expanded mans knowledge about the deep seas. Some towns emerged where there are harbours and ports. Air transport The desire to fly was a dream of mankind for many countries; some pioneers were even killed while trying to get airborne. Kits were probably the 1st objects to be flown. The 1st was a hot air balloon designed and built by two brothers, Jacques and Joseph Montgolfier. It covered only eight kilometres that lasted twenty minutes. Brazilian inventor, alberto Santos dumont, developed the 1st airship in 1898. Although it was a balloon, it was powered by an engine and called therefore be steered. The aeroplane. The 1st successful heavier than air powered flight was made by Orville Wright at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina in the U.S.A. Air transport and aircraft design advanced rapidly. By 1909, aeroplanes were being commercially produced, in 1911, the 1st airmail services was introduced. The jet engine The demand for higher speeds for military planes produced the gas turbine, which made possible the jet plane. The jet engine gave greater power and higher speed to aircraft. In 1970s, the jumbo jets were introduced which can cruise long distances at speeds of up to 1000km/h with 400 passengers on board. Today, the Concorde is the fastest passenger aircraft; it cruises at up to 2000km/h. Impact of air transport It has promoted international trade especially perishable goods. It provides transport to in accessible remote areas. It has revolutionised warfare as countries are able to strike their enemies with precision. It has contributed immensely to space exploration through space shuttle and satellites. Air transport has enhanced international co-operation and understanding. It has enhanced emergency and relief services for example; it is used by flying doctors in emergency situations. Accidents though rare are often fatal for all passengers and crew. Space exploration The discovery of the telescope in 1610 by Galileo Galilei made space exploration easier; astronomers began to study the moon through a telescope in the early 1600s. The rocket It was invented and 1st used by the Chinese around 1000ad. They were used as weapons and space exploration. In a simple rocket, burning fuel produces large amounts of gas. This is freed out of a hole at back, causing the rocket to move forward. Satellites It’s a small body that travels in orbit around a large body used as space exploration more than a hundred satellites are launched into the orbit around the earth by various countries every year. They are used to facilitate communication between the continents. They help geologists to prospect for minerals and assist astronomers in the study of the solar system. Space shuttle This craft is partly a rocket and partly plane. It is propelled into space like a rocket, bit it returns to earth like a aeroplane. Presently, several robotic missions have been sent into space. There is a permanent international space station orbiting the earth. Advantages of space exploration. It has enhanced human understanding of the universe like Pluto. It has led to the development of advanced air defence system, like the American star wars system. It has enhanced effective mapping and surveillance on earth through global positioning system. Space exploration has encouraged space tourism. Disadvantages of space exploration Accidents though rare have fatal consequences. It is very expensive and preserve of only the rich nations. It is an activity that contributes to environmental degradation e.g. degradation of the ozone layer. Impact of modern means of transport. An efficient transport network reaching all corners of every country has resulted in great expansion of both internal and external trade. There is migration of people from one part of the world to another is faster and easier. Advancement of transport made people settle in places where there were good means of transport. Faster transport has resulted into a quick transfer of ideas in technology. Farmers can easily transport their produce even to the most distant markets anywhere in the world. Raw materials have to be transported to factories, while finished goods have to reach markets. Enhance tourism as people require efficient transport services to visit areas of attraction in other parts of the world. Modern transport has created millions of jobs as aeroplanes, ship, trains and cars have to be built and serviced. It’s new possible to rush help to victims even in very remote places by air. Modern means of transport have expanded mans knowledge about universe and deep seas. It has also encouraged the exploitation of natural resources. Government benefit from revenue collection for the issuance of several types of licences and sale petroleum. Security is also boosted because personnel and officials can be moved easily from one part to another. Negative impacts There are accidents which lead to loss of many lives and causing permanent injuries. Increasing numbers of vehicles have resulted in serious traffic jams in many cities. Vehicles emit dangerous gases into the atmosphere. Fast and efficient systems of transport have changed the nature of modern warfare. Troops can be moved quickly to trouble spots. The rapid interaction of people encourages spread of diseases e.g. aids, avian flu, ebola. Definition of communication. It’s the sending and receiving of messages through a medium. This involves the receiver sending back a response to the sender. Factors to consider for effectiveness. The languages of the receiver of the message. It’s also important to consider the distance of the receiver from the sender. Consider the urgency of the message. The cost of sending messages is also another factor to consider. Also consider the geographical factors in which the receiver is operating from. Traditional forms of communication. As people began to live together, they found it necessary to share ideas, information and experiences. Fire and smoke signals. It was lit on raised ground, where it could be seen from a distance. It was used to send urgent message i.e. warning of an approaching invasion. Advantages They were visible The message was delivered very fast It was a cheaper way of passing a message. The message was limited to the users and outsiders could not understand. Disadvantages It was difficult to start fire in wet conditions. Smoke was not visible on a cloudy misty day and on a windy day it is easily blown away. The signals were of no use if no one was on the lookout. Messages could only be sent over short distance. They conveyed limited range of messages. Drum beats It was paled by skilled drummers who could imitate the sound of speech. Drums were used to announce village festivities, weddings, deaths or even to summon warriors to assemble in a squire. Drum signals could be relayed from one village to another. Advantages They could relay a wide range of messages. Messages could be conveyed over a wide area. Could be used at any time, e.g. day or night, wet or dry season. The message conveyed faster. Disadvantages The message could not be clearly interpreted It needed the expertise of skilled drummers. There is no privacy of the message sent. The distance covered was short. Messengers Runners were often sent to deliver messages particularly longer ones that could not be communicated by fire, smoke or drum boats. Confidential messages were also safely derived by messengers. Advantages Suitable where there are no other means of communication. Messages were delivered instantly. Disadvantages of messengers. It took a long time to reach the recipient since travel was by foot. The messenger could forget the message they were to deliver. The information could be distorted. The messenger could be attacked on the way and killed by wild animals. Distance covered by the messenger was limited. Horn blowing A variety of messages could be sent by means of long and short blast of a horn, such as public announcements. Such sound could also be relayed. Advantage A wide range of message could be conveyed through tones. Could be used at any time of the day or night under any weather conditions. Disadvantages The horn could be blown when no one was listening. The messages were restricted to those who knew the tones. Messages could not travel beyond hills and mountains. The privacy of the message was not assured. Screams and cries This was done from hills or mountain tops for maximum effects due to echoing. Different ways of screaming conveyed different message, wailing signified bad news e.g. death or attack by raiders. Ululations signified good news e.g. birth of a new child or feasting. Advantages A wide range of message was conveyed. The message reached the recipient fast. Messages were sent at no cost. Disadvantages The distance covered by the message was limited It had no secrecy in the message delivered. Written messages. Scrolls. It’s a roll of paper used for writing, it was 1st used in ancient Egypt by splitting, soaking in water and drying papyrus roads- pens were also made from the reeds, while ink was derived from glue, gums, charcoal and other substances. Parchments. It was made from dried skins of goats and other animals. It proved better than papyrus because it could be folded and cut easily into pages. Stone tables. In Mesopotamia, a system of writing called cuneiform was developed from about 3500 years ago. Writing was done on a clay tablet using a wedge-shaped niber stylus; this had to be done while clay was wet. Advantages of written The message was reliable as it could not be easily forgotten. In most instances the message was accurate. The message could be stored for future reference. Disadvantages The change in language used could affect the message as the meaning of words would also change. It is also effective in communication among the literate people. There are many forms of writing which create a problem of interpretation. Development in modern means of communication. Telecommunication. It’s sending and receiving of message quickly over very long distance. The telephone and cell phone The telephone is technological systems that send and receives voice message over a long distance by means of wires connecting to a local exchange. The cell phone is also known as a cellular or mobile phone. a cell phone is a two-way radio system which connects the caller to the telephone network using radio waves instead of wires. Television. It sends picture and sound messages by radio from a transmitting station to a distant television set. The station changes light and sound waves from a scene into electronic signal and sends them. These are received in a television set which changes them back into pictures and sounds. Radio A radio set is a device which receives electro- magnetic radio waves and them into sound waves. The telegraph The telegraph sends coded electronic messages by wire over long distances, for example, from one continent to another. The message is called a telegram if it travels over land; or a cable if it is sent or received from overseas. Electronic mail. Is the exchanged computer stored messages by telecommunication between connected computers. The computers are linked by telephone. Local and international computer networks enable e-mail to be sent. E-mail was among the 1st and is still the most widely used application on the internet. Computer This refers to an electronic device that works under a command or programme to reach a conclusion based on data supplied. A computer works in seconds, it is made up of two basic parts, the body work (handwork) and the programme of instructions (software) Fax simile trans-receiver (fax) The fax machine is also connected to a telephone line. It resembles a photo-copier; it transmits exact copies of pictures, letters, drawing or any other documents to another fax machine anywhere in the world. Telex It’s a modification of the telegraph. It sends and receives messages electronically which are printed in ordinary language. Neither does it need the presence of an operator to physically receive the message. Pager Is a small receiver that delivers short radio messages, the message is read on the pagers screen? It’s a portable communication message service. Internet A computer may be linked with other computers within an organization in order to easily exchange information. This linkage forms one network. The internet is a huge, worldwide system of millions of inter-connected networks. Advantages of telecommunication. They are fast and efficient means of communication. They store information for future reference. They enable instant transmission of information. Information can be transmitted all over the world. They enable transmission of message to more than one recipient at the same time. Disadvantages They can only be used where there is electricity. They rely on experts to operate and be maintained. They are expensive to buy and maintain, hence not accessible to all people. Their use is limited to place where there is network and reception. Impact They have increased interactions between people in many parts of the world. They have enabled people to manage information efficiently. The disposal of telecommunication gadgets may result in environmental pollution. Some means of telecommunication erode moral values e.g. pornography Use of some means of telecommunication may become addictive. Continues use of some means of telecommunication may be a health hazard. Provided government revenue through paying taxes and revenue. Provided employment to many people all over the world. They have promoted security by using radio and telephone to fight crime. They have promoted entertainment through music, films and sports. They have promoted trade as business people are able to communicate information about their products and services. Print media It’s refers to written and published document which provide information e.g. news letters, newspaper, magazines, journals and books. Newspaper Is a document produced daily to disseminate information about significant local and international news. Magazines Is a regular publication providing specialised information on a particular issue? It is usually bound within covers and published weekly, fortnightly or monthly. Periodical (journals) It’s a regular publication issued at weekly, monthly or quarterly intervals. They range from technical and scholarly journals to magazines for mass circulation. Advantages of print media. They provide a permanent record of information for future reference. Provide material for reading and reference. They can be distributed in many parts of the world. They can be translated into many languages. They provide detailed information. Disadvantages They can only be used by the literate people. They are expensive to obtain, making it difficult for many people to access them. They can be used to spread malicious propaganda. Impact of print media. They have enabled transmission of information all over the world. They have promoted literacy and education through provision of reading and defence material. They have created employment for many people. They are a source of government revenue. They have promoted moral decadence through publishing of obscene information. Impact of modern means of communication. Positive. It has enhanced educational and research. It has created entertainment. It has led to space exploration. It has lead to improvement in air and water transportation. It has led to improvement in trade. Creation of employment to people. It’s also a source of revenue. It has opened up remote areas. It has lead to weather forecasting. Negative impacts. It has led to rise in global crime. It has led to erosion of moral values. It has promoted addictive tendencies like , t.v programmes. There is also exposure to radioactive rays. It has lead to noise pollution. Telecommunication services have been used greatly to improve weaponry and conduct war. There has been the issue of cultural imperialism. DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY. Meaning of industry. Industry is the manufacture of new goods from raw materials. Early sources of energy Energy is the force that produces motion, it also does work. Wood. It’s the earliest source of energy used by man during the middle stone age, man invented and used fire which was used to cook and roast food. He late used it to burn wood to harden clay pots and smelt metals and later in 18th century it was harnessed for heating water to produce steam. Advantages. It was cheap to obtain. It was readily available from extensive natural forests. It was a renewable source as trees which were cut down regenerated. Disadvantages. Continued use of wood fuel resulted in desertification. Wood produces smoke that pollutes the environment. Wind. It’s a moving air with the capacity to create energy in objects upon contact. It was used to winnow and dry grains. It was also applies for turning wind mills and propelling sailing boats and ships. As a source of power to propel dhows, boats and ships, wind influenced the Indian Ocean trade. Wind mills are still used today to generate power and pump water. Advantages It was cheap to obtain. It was naturally available. It was a renewable source of energy. Disadvantages. It was unreliable since it was not always available. It was irregular as it was influenced by the prevailing weather and topography. Excessive wind could result in destruction of life and property. Water. For a long time man has used energy generated by water, when water drops from a cliff or over a fall, it can be harnessed to generate power because of its high speed. Advantages. It was readily available in certain regions. It was easy to trap and use. It was renewable and non-exhaustible. When coast were compared to other source it was cheap. It is a clean source of energy. Disadvantages. It depended on river levels which were influenced by rainfall. Excessive water could result in destruction of life and property. It was renewable and non-exhaustible. Uses of metals in Africa. The new Stone Age was succeeded by the metallic age. They used metal tools for agriculture and other domestic works. Metals were also used to make weapons. Advantages of metals over stone. The metals were durable and could not break easily. The metals maintained the cutting edge over a long period of time. Metals could be turned or made in various shapes. Broken metals could be smelted and reworked into useful items. Bronze. It’s an alloy ( a mixture) of copper and tin. It began in Mesopotamia from 3000 B.C  and spread to Egypt. Uses of bronze. Weapons, like daggers, arrow-heads, spears, shields and helmets. Tools like machetes (pangas) hammers and axes. Ornaments like bracelets, rings and anklets. Artistic items like sculptures, masks, plaques, flower vases and decoration of kings palaces. Disadvantages. It required frequently sharpening as they became blunt quickly. It was expensive to produce. Copper and tin necessary for manufacture of bronze were not always found at the same place. It was not easy to mix copper and tin in correct proportions. Availability of copper and tin depended on trade which was not always possible during war. Gold. It’s the earliest metal used by man in its natural state. Uses of gold. House hold items, in manufacture of vases and utensils such as cups, plates and bowls. Jewellery. Jewels and other decorative products were made from gold like sword handles, headgear and bangles. Trade. It was used in commerce as an item of trade and a currency. Currency. It was used to make coins and served as measure of wealth. Advantages. It’s easily obtained on the surface of the earth and river –beds. It was easy to use in manufacturing of tools as it was soft. Gold had a dark yellow attractive appearance. Gold was easily moulded into different shapes as it was malleable. Gold did not need much smelting as it was mined in almost pure form. Disadvantages. Tools made from gold easily became bent as gold was soft. Gold tools were difficult to use because they were heavy. Gold was not easily available in many parts of the world. Copper. It’s a soft brown durable metal. The Egyptian was among the earliest people to use the mineral in its raw form. Uses of copper. It was used to make sheets, pipes, masks and shields. It was used to make household items like vases, mirrors and pots. It was used to make tools like axes, chisels, pins, fish hooks, knives and other items for use in the home. It was used to make weapons like arrow-heads, spearheads, daggers, swords, helmets and shields. It was used to make ornaments like bangles, rings, beads, anklets and bracelets. To make alloys, copper was mixed with other metals to produce stronger metals like brass. (copper and zinc) It was used for trade; copper was used as an item of trade and medium of exchange in central Africa. Egypt and West Africa. Advantages of copper. It was easy to use in making tools as it was soft. Copper tools were durable as copper was harder than some other metals. Copper mixed easily with other metals to produce stronger alloys. Disadvantages of copper. Copper tools bent easily because copper was soft. Copper was not easily available in many parts of the world. Iron. Items made from iron are better and stronger. Origin of iron working in Africa. There are two theories which have been put forward to explain the origin of iron-working in Africa. Diffusion theory This theory holds that knowledge in iron-working came from outside the continent into North Africa from the Middle East by the Phoenicians and Assyrians. In the course of their migration and trade, they introduced iron-working into ancient carthage (north Africa), iron –working spread to west Africa, central Africa and south Africa. Independent development theory. Iron-working emerged independently at independent centres within the continent. This is supported by archaeological work in Buhaya in North West Tanzania. Factors which facilitated the spread of iron-working in Africa. Migration where Bantu had acquired knowledge about iron-working migrated from their original homeland in the Congo and settled all over Africa. Traders spread the knowledge of iron-working to the Kush and Chad basin. Iron-working knowledge also spread through warfare. It was also spread through intermarriages. Uses of iron in Africa. It was used for the production of stronger weapons like spears, dagger and arrows. Iron was baked into pots for various uses. It was used to make household items like knives and blades. Smelted iron was made into usable farm implements like hoes, axes and machetes. Smelted iron was made into artistic shapes of items such as sculpture and other technologically designed goods. were used in construction and building like reinforcement of building such as pyramids, tombs and concrete-built palaces The metals were used in empire-building and expansion of kingdoms. They in its raw and smelted state, iron were used as an item of trade. The impact of metals in Africa. It led to migration as the metals were used to clear bushes and forest. It also improved agriculture as large tracts of land were put into use as methods of farming changed. It also leads to specialisation like division of labour. With improved farming tools crop production increased leading to increased population. The use of metals gained fame as they became widely used and regarded in religious rites and in the royal palaces. It also leads to urbanization as trading and industrial settlement developed in major mining centres. With use of metals, trading patterns and methods changed. The industrial revolution in Europe. It can be defined as economic and technological changes which saw the replacement of cottage industry. Chacteristics of the industrial revolution. Invention of new system for mass production. Use of machines instead of human labour. Rise of factory system which replaced the cottage industries. Production of goods in large quantities. Continuous production with workers organised in shifts. Use of new sources of energy e.g. steam, coal, electricity and oil. Uses of various sources of energy. Coal. It’s an underground organic mineral. It is found in tree state namely. Anthracite coal. It’s a soft type that burns at high temperature to produce coke. Bituminous coal. It can also be used for cooking and coal gas production. This has low heating power. Lignite coal. It is like dirty brown coal with even less heating power. Uses of coal. It was used in iron-smelting. It provided lighting. Used as a raw material in the manufacture of dye and pharmaceuticals. It was used to heat water to providence steam which was later converted to fuel for driving locomotives. Disadvantages of coal. It was bulky and difficult to transport. It caused environmental pollution by releasing dark carbon and sulphur dioxide smoke when burning. It is expensive to mine and transport. Coal mining was risky as miners would get buried alive when mines collapsed. It is a non-renewable source of energy. Oil. It is found in a thick aqueous natural formation. Oil-based energy was found to be most convenient with the invention of machines and engines. Uses of oil. It is used for domestic lighting e.g. kerosene. It provides energy that drives motor vehicles, aeroplanes, ships e.t.c It is used to provide power to produce thermal electricity. It is used to run factory and domestic machinery. It is used in lubrication of machinery. Its by-product, tar, is used in the tarmacking of roads. It is used in petro-chemical industries to make plastics and synthetic fibre. Advantanges of oil. It is cheaper than the other sources of energy. It is easy to transport. It is convenient as it can be purchased in various quantities. It can be used for various purposes. Disadvantages of oil. It is non-renewable source of energy. It causes a lot of environmental pollution. It is highly inflammable and may cause accidents. Prospecting and extraction of oil is expensive. It is expensive to the non-producing countries. Steam. Water as a source of power was cumbersome and unreliable, so steam power was developed. In the 1st century B.C, the hero of Alexandria used steam power to open the massive doors of temples in Egypt. Uses of steam. It was used for driving, spinning and weaving machines in the textile industry. It was used to drive heavily machinery in factories. Used in driving turbines that generated electricity for industrial use. Used in driving early locomotives and steamships. Advantages of steam. It was readily available from heated water. It produced a lot of energy compared to any other source of energy available at the time. It was adaptable to many uses i.e. driving locomotives and generating electricity. It did not pollute the environment. Disadvantages. Its generation depended on coal and this made it expensive. Steam engines were huge and cumbersome hence not adaptable to many uses. It was suitable only for heavy machinery in factories making it inaccessible for wide domestic use. Electricity. This is power supplied by electrically charged electrons, transmitted through cables invented by Michael faraday in 1831. Uses of electricity. It is used in lighting. Used in heating and cooking. Powering machines in industries. Used in telecommunication system. Used in running electric trains. Advantages of electricity. It is easily and conveniently controlled from one switch where a generator dynamo or motor is fixed. It is further easily distributed to various users through regulatory or control switches along the cable line or lines. Electric cables are flexible and can be installed as per specific requirements such as for cooking, lighting, heating and to link or connect transport and communication machines. It’s used to produce different sizes and shapes of electric-charged items including heaters and refrigerators or coolers. The use of electricity is further advantageous because of its production by various sources such as water, petrol and more recently the atomic, nuclear and geothermal-generated machines. It’s convenient for many uses. Its use can be controlled through rationing when not enough. Disadvantages of electricity. Potential sites for its production are limited. The harnessing of electricity-generating resources is expensive and requires heavy capital machinery to install. It’s highly dangerous and requires careful handling. It requires well trained personnel for installation and maintenance. Iron and steel. Iron is a mineral obtained from ferrous ores. Steel is a product of highly heated iron exposed or mixed with carbon. Uses of iron. Making of water pipes. Making of ox-drawn ploughs. Making of machines for industries e.g. textile industries. Making of steam engines. Construction of trains, railway lines and ships. Construction of bridges. Disadvantages of iron. On its own, iron was weak and brittle. It could not be relied on in making of heavy machinery. On exposure to water or moist air, iron easily rusted. It was too heavy to transport thus its usage in construction and building was hampered. Uses of iron and steel. Construction of storages buildings such as the crystal palace. Making utensils/ Construction of railways and bridges. Manufacture of machinery and motor vehicles. Ship-building. Advantages of steel over iron. Steel does not rust like iron. Steel is strong compared to iron. Steel is not as heavy as iron. Steel can bend without breaking. Disadvantages of steel. Iron was combined with other metals making steel products expensive. It was difficult to mix the various metals in the correct proportion to produce good quality steel. All the required metals were not always available. Industrialization in Britain. Up to about 1670, Britain was the most industrialized country and a major world power with a wide trading market. Factors that favoured industriasation in Britain. Inventions in the British textile industries pioneered the revolution arising in the British industries. Britain hard accumulated large amounts of wealth from her trading empire and colonies. Through colonisation Britain had acquired industrial raw materials and market for industrial products. Britain underwent a period of developments in agriculture; these agrarian changes had great influence on industrialisation. Its large population provided a market and cheap labour for the industry. It had good transport and communication, her road and railway network facilitated the movement of industrial goods and products. The naval forces were important as it guarded sea routes from pirates and other intruders as well as protecting the merchants in trading ports. Uses of slave labour in plantations and mines in colonies greatly influenced her industrial development. Britain was and has been one of the countries with a well maintained banking and insurance infrastructure. Britain had for a long history of internal political stability. There were cottage industries that became the pioneers in large-scale factory investments. Britain had an abundant supply of skilled labour for her industries and economy. The country had adequate energy resources. The government encouraged a free and open-market economy. Industrialisation in continental Europe. The industrial revolution started from Britain in about 1750, this spread to continental Europe by 1850. Factors that led to industrialisation in continental Europe. Most of the countries had adequate supply of resources such as coal and iron-ore to provide energy and new materials. These countries also experienced political stability. The high population in these countries offered both skilled and unskilled labour for the factories. In all countries they strived to improve transport network through construction of roads, railways and canals. Most of the countries had undergone agrarian revolution. These countries had capital for industrial development through investment by wealthy merchants. They had varied sources of energy for industrial development. Availability of new skills in science and technology. Effects of industrial revolution in Europe. Political effects. It leads to the scramble and partition of Africa. It led to the birth and growth of maxims. This was ideology which was advanced by karl marx (1818-1863). It condemned capitalism for its exploitative tendency. It led to growth of a middle class, comprising of urban workers who became vocal in demanding for reforms and took on active role in the decision-making process. The revolution led to the emergence of the trade union movement. There were many unemployed people who offered a fertile ground for grievances and organisations opposed to the state. Social effects. It created new social groups notably the urban and rural society. It led to rural-urban migrations as many people migrated to the towns. It also led to population growth in Europe. It also led to improved medical services. High population in towns led to a shortage of housing. There was growth in pauperism or state of begging due to high levels of unemployment in towns. High incidence of child labour, where children and women workers were exposed to dangerous working conditions for long hours. It led to sound air and water pollution. Ecomonic effects. It led to improvement in agriculture due to market, fertilizers and machines. There were marked improvements in transport and communication patterns in Europe. It led to expansion of international trade as industrial countries were looking for markets to sell their products. Urban factories could not cope with the large numbers of rural- urban migrants who were seeking jobs. This led to high unemployment rate. The development and spread of factory based industries slowly forced the decline and collapse of cottage – based set-ups. Through the industrial revolution, European nations were able to make a lot of wealth. It also led to urbanization in Europe. It also led to scientific inventions related to machinery, transport and communication. The scientific revolution. It refers to a period in history when many discoveries were made about the universe. The discoveries and development in science increased human knowledge and understanding about the universe. It began in Europe during the renaissance period (1400AD). This was a period of rebirth of leaning and exploration. Early scientific inventions. The world ancient civilizations contributed in various fields of science such as medicine, biology, chemistry and geometry. Ancient Egypt: Egyptians were famous mathematicians and used their knowledge to construct wonderful pyramids (tombs) they also invented geometry which they used on their farms. Ancient china: they were main contributors in astronomy. The Chinese were the 1st to record what came to be called`` Halley’s Comet”. This is a heavenly body with s very bright head and less luminous tail orbiting round the sun. Arab and Muslim scholars: in astronomy, they studied the writings of Ptolemy, a Greek scientist, about the solar system. In mathematics, they borrowed the idea of zero from the Indians. Ancient India: they develop mathematics by introducing zero which made multiplication easier, in medicine, Indians found cures for snake bites and leprosy. Factors which facilitated the scientific revolution. The need to find solutions to day to day problems encouraged scientific research. The renaissance period in Europe encourage scholarship in different fields of scientific research. Discovery of the printing press by Johann Gutenberg of Germany in 1447 enabled the printing of books and journals and this enhanced the spread of scientific ideas. Government and wealthy individuals provided funds to support scientific research. Voyages of exploration led to discovery of new lands and encourage interest in new spheres of knowledge and research. Key personalities in the scientific revolution. Robert boyle: worked on an air and discovered that air was important for combustion and respiration. He also established that the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional. Copernicus (1473-1543): he gave an account of the rotation of the earth on its axis and its movement around the sun. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): he discovered force of gravity. He proved that the same force attracted the moon to the earth. The earth itself was similarly pulled to the sun. He also invented the reflecting telescope. Antoine Lavoisier (1743-94): he made successful experiments in chemistry to show the composition of air. He showed that it was made up of different elements, hydrogen and oxygen. John Dalton (1766-1844): he discovered the atomic theory. According to him all substance are up of atoms which are the smallest particles of matter in the universe. He also discovered and described colour blindness. Michael faraday (1791-1867): played a key role in the field of electricity. He produced electricity form a magnet and in the process made a dynamo which efficiently provided electricity. Charles Darwin’s (1809-1882): he invented a vaccine for smallpox. Louis Pasteur: he discovered the process of pasteurisation for the conservation of liquid foods such as milk. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790): showed that lighting was a form of electricity. William Merton (1819-1866): discovered that ether could keep patients asleep during an operation and so make them either feel less pain or no pain at all. Alexander graham bell. Invented the telephone in 1877. The impact of the scientific inventions. Positive effects It has led to improvement in farming methods and animals – husbandry. The invention of machines to replace human labour has quickened the agriculture process. Discovery of food preservation method has minimised lose of agriculture produce. Agriculture has been transformed from small-scale subsistence farming to a large scale economic activity. It has led to fast transportation of farm inputs; this has reduced on time and enabled farmers to earn maximum profit. Marketing of farm inputs and outputs has been improved by scientific invention through availability of telecommunication. Scientific invention has resulted into setting up of industries which consume agricultural produce directly as raw materials. Negative effects. Continuous use of artificial fertilizers had led to siol impoverishment. Continuous use of hybrid species has led to loss of some traditional plant and animal species which are more resistant to diseases. Pesticide, fertiliser and the farm inputs are expensive. Some agro-chemicals, e.g. pesticides, fungicides, fertilisers are toxic and therefore harmful to both plants and animals life. Impact on industry Positive effects. The invention of machines and new sources of power has led to emergence of more factories and mills. The invention of vaccines and drugs to control human diseases led to population growth rate. The invention of printing press has led to mass production of newspapers, magazines, periodicals and books. The discovery of steam power greatly revolutionaries transport industry as it led to the railway age with the invention of George Stephenson’s rocket. The discovery of steam, electricity and petroleum has led to the building of new iron and steel factories. Industrial developments have created job opportunities both skilled and unskilled. Production of industrial goods in large quantities has promoted the growth in trade. Negative effects. Widespread industrialisation has led to an increased in industrial affluent hence leading to environmental pollution. Automation in industries has led to loss of jobs. Invention and production of military hardware has led to massive loss of lives and destructive wars. Impacts of medicine. Positive effects. Scientific inventions led to i.e. eradication of killer disease e.g. smallpox It led to cleaner, safer and less painful surgical operation. It has made it possible for one to have a new face or look through plastic surgery. The invention of x-ray has made it possible to examine the extent of broken bones. The development of babies in the tubes through external fertilisation has helped childless couples to have children. It has made it possible for one to have a heart, liver and kidney transplant. Negative effects. Some of the inventions are expensive and beyond the reach of many people. Overdependence on drugs has weekend immune system due to development of resistance. Invention of safer abortions has led to immorality and loses of life in some countries. The failure of some scientific inventions and research has led to emergence of some resistance strains of diseases. Emergence of selected world industrial powers. The united states of America (USA) It has 52 states that are in the union or confederacy. It is one of the largest countries of the world, extending from the western Atlantic coastline to the Pacific Ocean in the west. It became independence in 1776 from England and recognised as an independent nation in 1781. Factors that lead to industrial revolution in U.S.A Raw materials were readily available like iron ore, oil from the oil fields in Texas, copper and coal. There was both skilled and unskilled labour who was European immigrants. U.S.A government developed transport system and communication like railways lines, telephones, fax and internet. There were scientific innovations as education system in U.S.A also promoted research with further boosted industrialization. The government in U.S.A allowed foreign investments especially from Britain and other countries. America had ready markets; America’s high population ensured a large domestic market for her industrial products. There were enterprising citizens. The Americans were always ready to venture into business. U.S.A had long periods of political stability since independency in the second half of the 18th century. There was available source of energy like coal, petroleum, gas and hydroelectric power. The U.S.A philosophy of capitalism encourages both local and external investors because it allowed private ownership of property. The government of the U.S.A under presidents’ Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson provide transport system. During the 1st and 2nd world wars the European industrialized nations were not able to produce industrial goods as they were busy fighting. This enabled usa to expand her market for manufactured goods since she initially decline to keep off the war. Germany. Until 1871, Germany was not united as one nation with a single ruler, with the completion of the france-prussian war of 1870-1871; these small states were united with Prussia to form Germany. Germany then began to develop her industries and by the start of the 20th century she had achieved a lot in terms of industrialization. Emergence of Germany as an industrial power. Establishment of the customs union, zollverein. This was a customs union which linked the Germany states together and removed trade barriers hence leading to free trade and economic growth in Germany. Availability of energy for use in industries like coal. There was natural resources which were used in industries like water and minerals like iron ore. There was availability of labour which was willing to work. The industrial products in Germany found a wide market in Germany’s large population. Existence of good transport and communication networks. Their existence along period of political stability in Germany after the unification in 1871 by prince otto von bismark. The availability of finance for industrial growth, this capital was from the rich Germany citizens who went for loans from local banks and U.S.A in 1924. The hardworking and enterprising nature of the Germans. Japan. Until the middle of the 18th century agriculture was the backbone of her economy, she also faced years of civil war and conflict. Emergence of Japan as an industrial power. She had enterprising citizens who were hard working and determined community. Japan has experienced a long period of political stability especially after world war 11. The japans work for life. This policy means that when one is employed in Japan, they put the interest of the employer first. Japanese goods, e.g. motor vehicles are high quality and have a wide market in Africa, U.S.A, and Europe. Japan has highly developed renewable hydro-electric power. Skilled and unskilled labour was readily available. Japan developed a good system of transport and communication. The existing industrial base before world war 11, Japan had already attained a certain level of industrial development. The Japanese government invited foreign expatriates and deployed them to local industries. Geographical factors also favoured industrialization in Japan. Japan had an open investment policy which encouraged the west to invest in her industries. Industrialization in the third world. The third world refers to the developing countries which depend on foreign aid and grants for their development ventures. Many developing countries have lagged behind in industrialization due to a number of reasons. Long periods of colonization relegated them to the role of suppliers of raw materials and as a market for industrial goods from develop countries at the expense of their own industries. There is poor transport and communication has undermined industrialization. Most developing nations have poor economies which can’t support meaningful industrialization. Most of the developing countries are lagging behind in the use of appropriate technology required in the manufacturing of goods and in the exploitation of natural resources. A large portion of the population in developing countries is made up of illiterate and semi- literate people. The protectionist policies adopted by developing countries have discouraged private enterprises and foreign investment. There is low market due to low purchasing power of most of the population. There is political instability in third world countries. Third world nations often have poor disaster management strategies. There is lack of skilled personnel in third world countries. Brazil. It’s the fourth largest nation in the world after Canada, china and U.S.A. It attained independency in 1882 from Portugal and gained republican status in 1889. She has established technology, sophisticated industries, especially in the field of telecommunications, electronic data-processing, and biotechnology. Four main sectors of Brazilian industrialization. Petroleum and petrochemical industries. It has produced enough oil to supply 55% of the Brazilian demand. Motor vehicle industry. It produces more than two million vehicles and earns about us$ ₂ billion in foreign exchange. Aircraft and aerospace industry. Electricity generation industry. Factors influencing industrialization in Brazil. Availability of both skilled and unskilled labour supply from the country’s large population. External markets with other countries have increased. Enough natural resources are available like coal, iron ore, uranium, manganese, gold and oil, provided raw materials for industries. Improved transport and communication like railway lines and telephone and telegraph lines. Development of banking for provision of loans to individuals who wanted to venture into the business. Good economic policies which encouraged development of transport and communication, HEP and oil exploration. Foreign capital which was used to establish industries in the country. The countries industrialization was boosted by the HEP and coal which were readily available. The main obstacles of industrialization in Brazil. High poverty levels as more than 40% the Brazilian population is poor and therefore has low purchasing power. Inability to fully exploit her natural resources. Stiff competition from already industrialized nations for manufactured goods. Huge foreign debts as a lot of money are used to service these loans instead of investing it in industries. It has poor technology to allow for the effective exploitation of her resources. South Africa. It has struggle along time against the policy of apartheid which had subjected the black majority in the country to economic, political and social hardship up to 1994. Many industries during the apartheid period, the main industries included iron and steel industries, engineering, locomotive, chemical, textile, cement, light industries and tourism. Factors influencing industrialization in SA. Availability of natural resources for process by her industries like iron and steel industries, lead, zinc, bauxite and tin. The industrial goods from SA are of high quality and can therefore compete favourably with those from the developed nations. The high population provided both skilled and unskilled labour for the industry. Development of source of energy like (HEP). Road, water and railway transport system are greatly developed in SA. Air transport is also well developed. The international airports enhance business operation. Availability of capital. The government of SA gets her capital mainly from trade in other materials. Political stability, especially after the end of apartheid rule. The government of SA has adopted good policies of promoting industrialization in the country by putting tariffs on the imported commodities. SA is also endowed with a variety of wildlife and scenic landscape that attracts tourists to the country. Challenges facing industrialization in South Africa. The discriminatory apartheid policy that discriminated Africans. The apartheid policy embraced by the minority white rule often met stiff resistance from the majority black population. Completion from the more developed countries like western European countries with superior goods. There were rampant industrial strikes in the country, especially during the apartheid periods. High poverty levels, a big number of the SA population are poor, therefore low purchasing power. SA has a high level of insecurity which, at times, discourages foreign investors. The HIV and AIDS scourge has ravaged the countries labour force, especially industrial labour. India. Industrial development is associated with European entry into the country from the 15th century. During the middle ages, European trades established trading posts along the coast of India. India attained her independence from Great Britain in 1947, since then she embarked on vigorous and ambitious industrialization programmes, by the end of the 20th century India had emerged as one of the most successful stories of industrialized states in the developing or third world. Factors that contributed to industrialization in India. Through colonization and colonisers industrialisation was brought in India. There was good transport and communication like railway and roads. There were cottage industries like weaving of cotton to make cloths. Indian had raw materials like coal, iron0ore and manganese. The 1st independent government of prime minister pandit nehm, embarked on policies to modernise the economy and expand established factories. The independent government formulated five-year plan to boost her industries like agriculture sector. Indians adopted a unique foreign policy on industrialisation. India’s large population has been a great asset for the supply of labour and the provision of ready market for industrial products. India developed her coal resources for the supply of fuel to locomotives and industries in support of her industrial establishment. Dual state private investment where Indian government has success fully used as duel approach to industrialise. Indian industries enjoy a large domestic market with foreign market within the third world. There was good entrepreneurship with good investment largely in India and a good number of the business or commercial acumen has penetrated third world cities. Challenges facing industrialisation in India. Natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes which destroy infrastructure, leading to economic losses. High poverty level among the Indian population has resulted into a low purchasing power. Indian suffers massive brain-drain. India has on many occasions fought with Pakistan and sectarian unrests. The HIV/AIDS pandemics are spreading at a faster rate in India. Indian products face stiff competition with other products from developing countries. Problems hindering industrialization in the third world. Lack of adequate funds to invest in the industrial sector is caused by high rate of population growth and rampant poverty. Lack skilled manpower mainly because of the poor education system that lay less emphasis on scientific, technical and vocational training. Poor means of transport and communication in third world countries have greatly hindered transport of raw materials. There is stiff competition from high quality and cheaply produced goods from developed countries. There is a free open local market but the purchasing power is low because is low because of poverty. Political instability does not offer a conducive and enabling environment to attract foreign investment. The issue of colonial and neo-colonial legacies. There are rapid population growth rates due to improved medical and health services; this effect has called for massive expenditure on food impetration. Third world countries have been subjected to epidemic catastrophes. Industrialization in the third world is greatly checked by large expenditures on military hardware for defence and security. Solutions to challenges facing third world industrial programmes. Provision of capital and credit to their people to reduce poverty. Improve the purchasing power of their people by increasing incomes. Encourage industrial investment by giving incentive and protection to local manufacturing sectors. Develop and extend the transport and communication infrastructure. Diversification of the economy and manufacturing industries. Promote and provide scientific and technological education to the people. Reduce military expenditures and divert finds for the manufacture of products for wide domestic and external markets. Boost and encourage regional co-operation for a wider industrial market.


It’s the process by which people are attracted to settlements of large human population. It may be described as a city or town; it may have more than 20,000 people. A town: over 20,000 people and up to 100,000 people. A city between 100,000 -500,000 people. An urban centre with population of over 500,000. There are various factors that determine the location of urban centres like commercial activities, like trade and transport; others were strategically placed for defence. Administrative centres would also grow and develop into urban centre. Early urbanization in Africa. The process of urbanisation dates back to the new Stone Age and it occurred due to a variety of reasons. Factors that led to early urbanisation in Africa. The presence of major centres of education such as universities contributed to the growth of urban centres. The issue of religion also led to urban development like timbukutu. Urban centres grew around fresh water sources like rivers, springs and oases. There were administration centres like emperors and kingdom. Mineral deposits like iron-ore, gold and salt led to urbanization. There was also trade in Africa this lead to urbanization. Route junctions also led to urbanization. Cairo. It’s the capital city of present day Egypt. It was founded in 969AD. It’s located on an old Greek settlement that was protected by the Romans against any external attacks. Egypt faced number of invasions on a number of occasion’s e.g. by the Syrians (1171-1249) Turkish mamaluks (1249-1517), ottoman Turks (1517-1798) and the French (1798-1801). Egypt acquired self-governance in 1922 but the Turkish dynasty continued dominating them until 1936 when they were overthrown. It attained in 1952 after the monarch was overthrown by Colonel Abdel Nasser in 1952. Factors for the growth of Cairo. It was centre for education and medicine like university of Cairo, America University and Azhar University. The development of various industries in Cairo including food processing and construction attracted people to Cairo. It’s a cultural centre being home to treasure preserved from the early Egyptian civilization and Islamic culture in their museum. International trade between Egypt and other regions was disrupted during the two wars. The Aswan high dam was opened in 1902 which enhanced food production through irrigation. The Suez Canal was opened in 1869 and opened new trade route which encouraged the arrival of thousands of Europeans. Transport services during the 19th century improved due to the construction of railway lines and roads. Through Nile, the town attracted caravans which would pass through Cairo from north, west and central Africa. Cairo has continued to expand along the river Nile to the north and the south, the Nile not only provides water, for domestic use, but as also a means of communication. Functions of Cairo. It was a national capital and a political centre of the Arab world. It serves as the transport and communication centre. It has many recreational facilities like stadiums and entertainment halls. Cairo has been a historical centre being house to the Egyptian civilization for over 5000 years. It also serves as an industrial centre. Problems facing Cairo. There is high population pressure. Due to population there is scarcity of food. There is unemployment among the people. Housing problems. There is traffic jams. There is industrial pollution. High crime rate due to unemployment. Solutions to the problems. Food shortage has been addressed by reclaiming land for agriculture and water for irrigation from Aswan high dam. Housing problem as the government has developed industries in the suburbs. Merowe/Meroe. It was situated on the bank of the river Nile about 130 miles north of modem Khartoum; it is believed to have emerged at around 350 AD. It was founded by the Nubian origins, and that they were the former rulers of Egypt. Meroe increasingly became an important centre for iron working, an important industry that produced not only weapons, but also hunting and farming tools. Factors for growth. It had abundant wood fuel, which was key to the prosperity of the iron working industry, because the town was located at the meeting point of blue and white Nile. It was strategically located at the intersection of different transportation and communication routes. It was located in a region whose soils were rich in iron; indeed, archaeological evidence has shown that iron working started as early as 500BC. Social effects of growth. Meroitic language was developed. New architectural developments took place in the region. In addition to iron working other industries also developed. Functions of Meroe. It served as a capital of the kingdom of Kush. It was a major iron-smelting centre in the region. It served as a major centre for agriculture and trade in the Kush kingdom and upper Nile. It was a religious centre where the lion-god-Apedemek was worshipped in the lion temple. Decline of Meroe. The rise of the Aksum kingdom in modern Ethiopia. The increasing desertification of the region, perhaps due to the rapid deforest ration also led to meroes decline. Iron-smelting consumed a lot of wood fuel. This exposed the soils to soil erosion through clearing of forest. Attack and conquest of king Ezana of Axum in 350AD Kilwa. It was located on the east coast of Africa between the mafia islands and the mouth of the Ruvuma River. It was established by Swahili-speaking Muslims who had migrated from the northern cities of shunwaya and lamu to make room for migrants from Persia and the gulf. It was prosperous and powerful autonomous city and had conquered most of the settlements between Zanzibar and sofala. Factors for the growth of kilwa. It was strategically placed for the Indian Ocean trade and ship could sail. It participated in the Indian Ocean trade and became both wealthy and powerful as a result. The majority of the people on the island were Muslims, thus the region was used by the rulers to unify the people, especially in times of war. Gold was one of the major commodities of the Indian Ocean trade. The shirazi leaders founded a dynasty which provided able leadership. Functions of kilwa. Kilwa served as a major trading centre in the Indian Ocean trade. It was a centre of Islamic religion in the southern coast of east Africa. It was a major Arab and Muslim settlement along the east African coast. It served as a link between the coast and southern Tanzania hinterland. It was an administrative centre which housed palace of the rulers. Factors for decline of kilwa. The disruption of the gold trade due to civil wars. There were dynastic revelries caused by competition for power by some royal families. Constant rebellion by vassal states weakens the city state. Attack, conquest and eventual occupation by the Portuguese. Early urbanization in Europe. Early urbanization in Europe dates back several thousand years and has its cradle in the Greco-roman civilisations. The early inhabitants of the continent were mainly rural folk who engaged in subsistence farming, hunting and gathering. There was also crafting such as blacksmiths and carpenters. London Background. Is the capital city of the United Kingdom and is located on the banks of the Thames River. Roman soldiers occupied the current location in 43AD and built an early precursor to the London Bridge in 50AD. Factors for the growth of London. The location of London on the banks of river Thames enabled the city to access both the interior and the sea. Trade has taken place in the London since the roman times. London was a cultural focal point for the whole of Britain. London was also a religious centre from 597 AD when st. Pauls cathedral was built. There was educational centre financed by the city to build public schools such as charterhouse and st. Pauls. London had good administration which was laid down by Romans. London developed into a trading centre, the city also grew into financial hub of Britain. Throughout the history of the city, the building industry has played a significant role. There were industries like cloth production was England’s biggest industry and vast amounts were exported through London. London had an effective and efficient city administration. Functions of London. London served as an important part of the United Kingdom for exports and imports. It was a major trading and commercial centre. The city was a major religious and cultural centre with monasteries, cathedrals and churches. It was a financial centre. It served as the capital city of the United Kingdom and the administrative centre of the city government of London. Athens. It’s one of the early states in ancient Greece. The Athenians were thinkers and liked to talk. They spent much time developing theories of the who’s and whys of the world. Athens was a beautiful city; it is most famed for its carvings, pottery and buildings which were done by very fine workman ship. Athenians were divided into four classes. The 1st class was made up of the richest that were the most heavily taxed. The 2nd class provided cavalry for the army. The 3rd class provided soldiers for the infantry. The 4th consisted of the poorest and who paid no taxes. Factors that led to the growth of Athens. The town engaged in trade, selling wine, olive oil, wool and ceramics in exchange for grain. The city had good security located on a hill, making discreet ascent by enemies difficult. Athens was an important cultural centre in the ancient world. There was good education like mathematic, astronomy, medicine and philosophy. It was a religious centre with a large temple, the Parthenon. Functions of Athens. It was a major trading centre for wines, oil, and wool, ceramic and agricultural products. It was served as a major cultural and arts centre with well developed theatre and play grounds. It served as an educational centre with well developed academic centre led by great philosophers and scientist. It was a religious centre of traditional Greek goddess Athena and later to the Greek Orthodox Church. Emergence of modern urban centres in Africa. Nairobi. It’s the capital city of the republic of Kenya situated on the Athi plains. Originally it was a meeting point of the kikuyu and maasai communities. The area was inhabited by the maasai who called it enkare Nairobi ``the place of cool waters” In June 1899, the railway reached the Athi plains and Nairobi. Factors for the growth of Nairobi. Nairobi had a high attitude which led to cool and pleasant temperatures. The presence of Nairobi River ensured about water supply. Trading activities, 1st between the maasai and the agikuyu and later the Swahili-Arab caravan trade enhanced the growth of the city. The transfer of the colonial government headquarters from Mombasa to Nairobi in 1907 further led to the growth of the city. The site was a level ground or plain which favoured the construction of buildings. The area around Nairobi had great economic potential. Functions of Nairobi. Nairobi is the administrative headquarters of Kenya government. It’s a transport and communication centre for the east and central Africa with railway, road and air links. The city is a tourist centre with various attractions like Nairobi national park. Nairobi is a commercial and financial centre with various financial institutions e.g. banks and stock exchange. It is a residential centre with schools, polytechnics, colleges and universities. It is a cultural centre with the Kenya national theatre and bomas of Kenya. Problems facing Nairobi city. The city’s water and sewerage services have been overstretched. There is an increase in slums, where the housing and sanitation conditions are poor, mainly due overcrowding. The city is faced with the daunting task of providing social service such as education and health facilities. There is population growth which leads to traffic congestions. The waste disposal, as it generates mountains of garbage on a daily basis. There is a large number of unemployed people that are drawn to it daily in search in a better life. Solutions to problems facing Nairobi. Expansion of water projects to supply water to the rising population of the city. The government should partner with the private sector to provide sewerage and garbage collection services. Building of affordable housing to replace the slums. Development of infrastructure such as road bypasses and flyovers to decongest the city. Implementation of cost, sharing programmes to expand social services. Johannesburg. It’s located on the highland plateau of the Gauteng province. In 1886 gold was discovered in the Witwatersrand region of the province. This prompted the government to send two officials to go and investigate the claims and identity a suitable site for settlement. These were Johann risk and Johannes Joubert. It is from their names that the city got its name. It is nicknamed Egoli, which means ``place of gold’’, as 40% of the worlds gold is found there. Factors for growth of Johannesburg. The discovery of gold led to its growth. There was large number of population to provide labour which was to be used in industries and mines. The government initiated policies that favoured industries and encouraged their establishment in Johannesburg. The location of the town on a veld (plain) near the Vaal River made construction work easy and development. The availabity of coal which served as the major source of the city’s energy. There was a variety of industries like iron, diatomite and chloride. There was availability of food stuffs grown in the province that ensured food stability. The banking services were introduced in Johannesburg to serve the mines. Functions of Johannesburg. It is a transport and communication centre with road, rail and air links to major towns. It’s an industrial centre with major manufacturing industries. It has commercial, financial institutions and companies from other parts of the world. It is an educational centre with many educational institutions. The city is a tourist centre and attracts many tourists from various parts of the world. Problems facing Johannesburg. Over population has resulted into shortage of housing and growth of slums. There is a high level of unemployment due to the influx of the people from the neighbouring countries. The city has high crime rate which may be attributed to unemployment. Heavy concentration of industries has led to industrial pollution. In adequate social amenities like schools, hospitals and sanitation. Solutions to problems facing Johannesburg. Development of infrastructure. Encouragement of investors to start business so as to create employment. Improvement of revenue collection in order to provide better services to the city residents. Building of better and affordable houses to replace the shanties. Partnership between the police and the community to reduce the high rate of crime. Impact of agrarian and industrial development on urbanization. The practise of agriculture forced human beings to adopt a sedentary lifestyle as they had to settle at specific sites to attend to their crops and livestock. It led to growth of urban centres. There was increased food production. There was promotion of trade due to surplus produces. There was also production of raw materials for industries which led to growth of towns as the industries attracted settlement. Export and imports of agricultural produce and manufactured goods led to expansion and growth of part towns. There was rural-urban migration which resulted into overcrowding and congestion in urban centres. High concentration of industries in the urban centres led to air, noise and water pollution. There was also increase in unemployment rates.


BAGANDA KINGDOM. Factors for its growth. Hard strong rulers that is kibugwa, katerregga and mutebi. (bunyore-kitara). Had good, strong and able rulers in the 19th century, who were able to unite their people and restructure the existing administration system. It was a small and compact kingdom which was to hold together. It enjoyed strategic, social and political advantages like geographically it lies next to l. Victoria with good means of internal communication and natural defence against neighbours. It also traded with waswahili and Arab traders for commodities like plates, cups, saucers and glassware which lead to arms acquirement. It also enjoyed good climate with ample rainfall for the growth of bananas which was stable food. It had good security which made it concentrated on political organization. It had a strong army which was loyal to the king as he appointed his own loyal chiefs with royal navy that kept guard over l. Victoria. The ganda tradition also contributed to the growth of the kingdom, farming done by women, men in activities of politics, carpentry, war, bark-cloth making and smiting. They also acquired a lot of wealth from areas she conquered like ivory, slaves, livestock and iron ore us it held the kingdom to be strong. The centralized government that was introduced in Buganda enhanced her growth. It had a centralized kingdom lead by kabaka who had absolute power and kabaka was hereditary upto his death and inherited by the son. Kabakas court was nerve centre and all symbols of royal authority were kept in court, like the throne (namulondo) royal drums, spears and stools. Work of kabaka. Head of traditional religion ( the lubaale) Hard supernatural power. He was judiciary head and final court of appeal. He was the commander-in –chief of the armed forces. He had a wife from every clan in the community. He could appoint and transfer or dismiss whoever he wanted. There were officials like queen mother and queen sister (ubanga), katikiro (prime minister), omulamuzi(chief justice), omuwanika (treasurer) and mugama( haeds of clans). Others were musenero( the chief butter) and mfumbiro( the chief baker). Katikiro. He organised tax collections. Planned wars in kabakas name. Protected kabaka during war. He was to inform the kabaka of the decisions he made on court issues. Lukiko. It was an assembly of chiefs and kabaka had 69 members. It was a law making body. It was nominated by kabaka. Had the following roles. Advised kabaka mainly on matters affecting the country. They represented the people’s concerns and needs to the kabaka. Acted as final court of appeal in setting disputes. They directed collection of taxes in the kingdom and planned expenditure. They helped the kabaka in general administration. Bataka. They were minor chiefs in charge of clans and answerable to mugema. They were guardians of the clans land. They inherited their positions. They collected tributes and maintained law and order. They were rewarded land due to loyalty. Their  sons appointed to serve the kabaka( bagalagala) Political organization. It was headed by kabaka(king) who was respected as the suprime judge. The kingdom had counties called sazas lead by a saza chief. The counties were sub-divided into sub-counties called gombolola. The gombolola were divided into smaller divisions called miluka which were presided over by muluka chief. Kabaka also appointed some leaders to govern the vassal states. The kabaka was hereditary. There were courts to judge and symbols in the kingdom. Kabaka hard superhuman powers. Social organization. Thos was based on clans which had its own traditions. They were divided into classes (4 classes). They believed in supreme creator, katonda to whom the head of the homestead prayed every morning. They believed in other gods, balubaale. They had prophets who consulted balubaale. They had royal shrines which opposite kabakas palace. Economic organization. It was based on the agriculture, peasants cultivated millet, sweet potatoes and vegetables. The most important crop was banana. There was also other economic activities like canoe building, bark-cloth manufacture, fishing, salt mining, herding, iron-working and basketry. There was crop rotation system. Trade had become very important economic activities and markets were a regular part of life. There was foreign trade with Swahili and Arab traders. Factors for the decline. Kabaka mwanga was inconsistent and incompetent in policy making. There were religious conflicts between the Christians, Muslims and traditionalist all who were competing for influence at the kabakas court. The authority of the kabaka was undermined by the Christians court officials. The kingdom came under British control after anglo-buganda agreement. Daudi chwa being an infant could not exert his authority as king hence the kingdom was managed by the court officials collaborating with British. THE ASANTE/ASHANTI. They are the largest group of akan-speaking who make half of Ghana population. They migrated from the north between 1000AD and 1300AD, by the 16th century the akan had created states like denbyna, akwamu and fante. The Asante kingdom emerged in the late 17th century occupying the central part of the present day Ghana. It grew so powerful that for the next two centuries it determined the politics and trade of the region. Factors for growth of the Asante Empire. The golden stool brought unity. The 1st three rulers or asantehene were able, shrewd and courageous politicians. ( obiri yoboa, ose tutu and opuku ware). The growth of the trans-Atlantic slave trade brought a lot of wealth. Several city-states emerged around Kumasi and supported each other. The kingdom also had a strong agricultural base. The centralized political system under asantehene provided stability. The Asante kingdom had a large efficient standing army used gun and gun powder. The odwira festival that was held annually helped to make the state more cohesive. The asante were barve and proud people and the need to free themselves from the oppressive rule of denkyria. Political organization. The Asante Empire was ruled by the asantehene with the advice of the confederacy or union council. State kings were called the omanhene. The Asante had a centralized political system. They had the nucleus of the Asante Empire was made of five city which were Kumasi, dwaben bekwel, kokofu and nsula. The Asante Empire demonstrated highstandard of political organization. The empire had three parts, Kumasi (metropolitan), amatro and provincial Asante. Metropolitan Asante. It was ruled directly by the asantehene as suprime authority. The golden stool. It was introduced during the reign of osei tutu provided a solid base for unity among the Asante. A priest called okemfo anokye is credited as having intended the idea of the golden stool which came from the sky in 1695. It made the office of asantehene, which was considered sacred acceptable, it was a source of unity. The government of the metropolitan Asante consisted of the confederacy council made up of kings (omanhene). Work of omanhene. Give the right of declaring war on other omanhene. Recognize the right of asantehene to impose national levies, especially during wars and national calamities. Attended the annual odwira festival, to pay allegiance to the asantehene, honour the dead and settle disputes. Grand own subjects the right to appeal to the high court set up by the four unions in the capital. Provincial Asante. These comprised of all the state conquered by the Asante in the 18th century. These states pledged loyalty to the asantehene by paying taxes. They also had members in the asantehens army. Economic factors. It was located in a rich area in terms of land fertility and rainfall. It had Atlantic trade routes converged in this region. It provided gold, slaves and ivory to the trans-Atlantic traders. They also received cotton cloth, guns and gun powder. The Asante also served as middlemen and carried goods from Cape Verde and Benin to the gold coast in exchange for gold and ivory. Slaves became a very important item of trade. Asante also kept livestock such as cattle. Asante grew many crops in their rich agricultural land. They practised iron working and made other crafts such as baskets and pots. Social organization. They are part of akan-speaking people. They observed a forty-day calendar and had the same marriage and naming rites. They had matrilineal taboo against marrying from within ones maternal or paternal clan. They had odwira festivals. They also had the golden stool ceremony. There were also slaves who provided labour. They also hard polygamous families. Decline of the asante empire. Internal factors. Opuku ware, who was succeeded osei tutu in 1720, failed to incorporate the conquered areas in the Asante union as his predecessors had done. After his death in 1750, there was no immediate personality to unify the empire after the death of opuku ware. There followed a long period of rebellions after 1750. External factors. In 1896, the British occupied Asante and arrested the asantehene. The traditional rivals of the Asante, the fante, enlisted the support of the British in a number of wars in the 19th century. In 1894, the Asante were defeated. The subject states took advantage and broke away. THE SHONA The shone are a bantu-speaking group that inhabited the high fertile plateau between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers. This area is part of modern Zimbabwe. Factors for the growth of shone kingdom. The kingdom was situated in a region that was well endowed for cattle and crop-growing. There was also development of trade. There was able leadership by powerful kings. The kingdom had a strong standing army which enabled her to conquer her neighbours. There was availability of mineral resources such as gold and copper. Religion brought unity to the kingdom whereby the king acted as the chief religious leader. The shone acquired firearms through trade with the east African coast. Political organization. By the beginning of the 19th century, the shone did not have a strong centralized state. They formed a confederation known as the Rozwi Empire. The empire was headed by an emperor; the seat was hereditary which created unity in the empire. The following helped the emperor run the state. Queen mother, queen sister, kings nine wives, head door keeper, chief justice, military commander, head drummer and chief cook. The title of the king was mwene mutapa and he was the chief religious authority. Religion and politics were intertwined. The spirits were believed to enhance peace and stability in the empire. There was the royal fire. This was lit at the court of mwene mutapa and would not be allowed to go off or dwindle until the end of the king’s reign. Each vessel chief carried a flame from this fire to his own chiefdom to demonstrate loyalty to mwene mutapa. The empire was divided into provinces which were ruled by lesser chiefs. The chiefs sent their sons yearly to pledge loyalty to the mwene mutapa. The kingdom had a strong standing army. Revenue from trade was used to run the empire and sustain the army. Social organization. The shone were polygamous and organized into clans. They had a partrilineal inheritance system in their kinship. They were influenced by religion. The king was regarded as a divine king and was venerated. The religion was based on the mwari cult. Who was supreme and creator. Several priests led the people in worship of mwari. They believed in the existence of ancestral spirits who acted as intermediaries between the people and God. Work in shone community was communal and divided according to sex. They lived in stone houses. Their education was informal. Economic organization. They were mixed farmers. They were hunters and gatherers. They did fishing around river Zambezi. They mined gold and copper. Were iron workers. Practised trade long distance with Arab – Swahili and Portuguese. Made clothes from wild cotton and barks of trees. Practised carving producing variety of items for decoration from ivory and soapstone. The decline of the shone kingdom The great Zimbabwe declined because of lack of salt and the trade routes that passed in the kingdom had shifted to north towards the Zambezi valley. There was an increase in population which exerted pressure on land for cultivation and pasture. King mutapa who succeeded mutota as king of mwene mutapa was not as powerful as his father. The Portuguese presence in the kingdom resulted in chaos in the kingdom. The Rozwi Empire was conquered by the Ndebele from South Africa who ruled the shone up to the time of the British invasion.


Meaning of constitution. It’s a set of principles and rules which states how a country is governed, its organization and aspirations and establishes the structure of government and distributes of power among various arms of government. It also spells out the rights of the citizens as well as their responsibilities and duties in relation to the state. Types of constitutions. Written or unwritten Written constitutions. It’s where the fundamental principles and rules of the state are contain in one document. Its prepared by a designated body then enacted and adopted through a clearly defined procedure like the American constitution that was written in 1789 and enacted in 1789. Advantages of written constitution. The document is readily available for reference in times of crisis. It’s rigid and not prone to tampering with. It is clear and definite in addressing various issues. It clearly outlines the powers, terms, relations and duties of different organs of government, ensuring they don’t come into conflict with each other. It helps to promote national unity in a country. It helps in safeguarding the interests and rights of minority groups. Disadvantages. It sometimes fails to respond to emerging issue due to its rigidness. The procedure of amendment is slow and cause delays which could lead to civil disorder Some are detailed and rarely understood by ordinary citizens. It tends to make judiciary too powerful as it is the organ that interprets the document. Unwritten constitution. It’s where fundamental principles and rules of a state are not contained in a single document but are drawn from various sources. Examples of unwritten documents. Constitutional milestone: like magna carte (1215) this was agreed between king john and the nobility that guaranteed certain privileges for all Englishmen. Legislation: These are part of the fundamental principles of the state and contribute to its aspirations like. The petition of right act (1628) that prevented the state from raising taxes without the consent of parliament. The habeas corpus act (1679) that established the right of prisoners to an immediate trial. The bill of rights act (1689) that limited the power of the monarchy. The act of settlement (1701) that granted independency to the judiciary. The act of union (1707) that united the parliament of Scotland and England. The parliament acts (1911, 1949) that limited the powers of the House of Lords to delay legislation. Parliamentary act (1918, 1928) that allowed women to vote. The peerage act (1963) that prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, colour or ethnic origin. Representation of the people act (1969) that lowered the voting age to eighteen. Case law: this refers to specific rulings made by the British courts that have had an impact on the principles of the state. Parliamentary customs: These are traditions, customs and rules of British parliament form part of constitution and are contained in the hansard. Commentaries: these are the writings, opinions and assertions of respected scholars. Constitutional conventions: these are political traditions or agreements which have been followed or applied over a period of time. Advantages of unwritten constitution. They are simple to amend as they are altered like ordinary law. They are acceptable due to its home-grown. They are flexible and easily adoptable to prevailing situations in the state. Disadvantages of unwritten constitution. It tends to be indefinite and imprecise in comparison to the written ones. The ease and simplicity with which such constitutions can be amended leaves them open to manipulation by the legislator. Too much power is given to the judiciary that has responsibility of interpreting the constitution. It does not guarantee sufficient protection of the rights of citizens. It tends to overload the judiciary as they look for constitutional principles not only in judicial decisions but in statutes. Characteristics of a good constitution. It must define its content clearly. Comprehensive so as to cover all aspects of government. Able to protect the fundamental rights and freedoms of the citizens. Durable and elastic. Constitution making. The independence constitution was not made directly by the people. It was negotiated in London at Lancaster house between the British government and representatives of Kenya’s political parties who were members of the legislative council. Since independence many amendments to the constitution have been done. The interparties parliamentary group. (IPPG) The parliament formed a forum as part of constitution changes in august 1997, this forum agreed on limited reforms to ensure free and fair general elections in 1997. Constitution of Kenya review act. This was passed in 1997. It was to provide a legislative framework, structure and vision of the constitution review process after the 1997 elections. The act, however did not satisfy all, stakeholders held a series of meetings in 1998 at bomas of Kenya and at safari park hotel in Nairobi to try and find a consensus which lead to amendment of the act in 1998. The major parties did not agree on the nomination of the members to the constitution of Kenya review commission. (CKRC) This led to establishment of two parallel review processes, one, the CKRC appointed by the parliament and the president under the review act and the other led by a coalition of religious and civil organisation, with support of political parties. This was called ufungamano initiative held in ufungamano house, to avoid stalemate, negotiations were held between November 2000 and May 2001, resulting in the amendment of the review act may 2001. The 2001 act established a number of organs to guide the review process like. The constitution of Kenya review commission.(CKRC) The constituency constitutional forum.(CCF). The referendum. The national assembly. The constitution of Kenya review commission. It had 29 commissioners nominated by the national assembly and pointed by the president. Its main function was to facilitate the comprehensive review of constitution by the people of Kenya. It was chaired by professor yash pal ghai. Constituency constitutional forum. It was based at every constituency. It was to collect and debate the views of the members of the public. The national constitutional conference. It was to debate, amend and adopt the draft constitution. It had 629 members as shown below: 222 members of national assembly. 210 representatives of districts elected by county councils. 29 members of the CKRC. 42 members representing political parties. 125 representatives of religious, professional womens group, trade unions and other non-governmental organisations. It discussed the views of the people and came up with a draft constitution, famously known as bomas draft. The referendum. It provided for a referendum to be held within one month if there was no consensus on any issue during the national constitution conference. The national assembly. The act empowered the national assembly as the sole body to enact the bill to change the constitution. Once the NCC had adopted the draft bill and the people had approved it at the referendum, the CKRC would prepare the final draft bill to be presented to the attorney general for tabling before the national assembly which will enact the bill under the parliamentary select committee. Reconvening of the national constitutional conference. The national constitution conference was reconvened after the 2002 elections. In march 2004, the conference adopted the draft constitution, however professor yash pal ghai was stopped by the court from presenting the draft to the attorney general for tabling in parliament. The parliament went ahead and revised the draft in naivasha and kilifi. These came up with a draft which was harmonised by the attorney general. It was called wako draft which was presented to a referendum in 2005 and majority of Kenyans rejected it. The committee of experts. The constitution of Kenya review bill was passed in 2008; it established a committee of experts headed by nzamba kitonga. Its mandate was to: Harmonise the previous draft constitution and come up with an agreeable document. Conduct civic education on the proposed new constitution. Organise national discussion of draft constitution. On completion of its work the committee of experts presented their draft to the parliamentary select committee which tabled it in parliament. The draft was then published by the attorney general on 6th may, 2010. It was subject to a referendum on 4th august, 2010 and passed overwhelmingly. Promulgation. It was promulgated by the president on 27th august, 2010. This means being adopted and made effective. Amendment to the constitution. The constitution provides two ways through which it can be amended. There are: Amendment by parliamentary initiative. A bill is introduced in both house the senate and parliament. If the bill is passed, the speakers of the two houses submit it to the president for assent. Amendment by popular initiative. A proposal to amend the constitution may be signed by at list 1 million registered voters in form of general suggestion. The initiative is delivered to the independent electoral and boundaries commission to verify the list of voters and submit it to the county assemblies. If the draft bill is approved by a majority of the county assemblies, it is introduced in parliament. If passed by parliament, the bill is presented to the president for assent. If either house or parliament fails to pass the bill, the proposed amendment is subjected to a referendum. Aspects of the independence constitution of Kenya. This involved decolonisation of Kenya. Kenya gain internal self-governance on 1st June, 1963 where the main characteristics of the new constitution were a Westminster government with a federal or majimbo system. The executive. The head of the state was the governor- general acting on behalf of the queen. He enjoyed wide ranging powers concerning internal, security and foreign affairs: in addition, he could vote legislation. The government of Kenya was headed by the prime minister, appointed by the governor-general. The prime minister was to be chosen from among the members of the House of Representatives and was expected to enjoy the support of majority of the members. The legislature. There were two houses the senate and national assembly who did the legislative work. The House of Representatives had 112 directly elected members, representing constituencies and served for five years. The senate or upper house comprised of 41 directly elected members, each representing a district and one for Nairobi. The judiciary. The constitution established an independent judiciary, according to the judges and the attorney-general security of tenure. Federalism. Kenya was divided into seven regions, each of which had its own legislative and executive structures. Rights and freedoms. There was a section that spelt out the right and freedoms of all of the Kenya’s citizens i.e. a bill of rights. Citizenship. Members of all the indigenous Kenyan communities were entitled to Kenyan citizenship, as were specific members of the migrant communities, especially the European and Asian. It also spelt out the necessary conditions for the acquisition of citizenship. Democracy. It provided for multi-party democracy in Kenya. The issue of independent electoral commission and competitive electoral process. Constitutional changes since independence up august 2010. Changes in the legislature. 1965. If a member of parliament is sentenced to prison term of six or more months he would lose his seat. A Member of Parliament who missed eight consecutive parliamentary meetings without the speaker’s permission would lose his seat. 1966. A member who resigned from the party that sponsored him to parliament was to vacate his or her seat. The bicameral legislature, were merged, establishing a unicameral legislature called the national assembly. All candidates vying for an election were to be nominated by a political party. The 12 specially elected members were substituted with 12 members nominated by the president. 1975. English and Kiswahili were used as a means of communication. 1982. Section 2A of the constitution was amended. 1986. The number of parliamentary constituencies was raised to a maximum of 188. 1991. Section 2A was repealed making Kenya a multi-party state. The number of parliamentary constituencies was fixed at a maximum of 210. 1997. The power to appoint nominated members of the national assembly was passed to the political parties. 2010. Members of parliament were increased from 210 to 290. Bicameral legislature was introduced. County assemblies were introduced in the counties to pass legislations. Changes in the executive. 1964. The post of executive president who was the head of state and government was created. The position of the prime minister and governor-general was abolished. 1966. The public security act was passed, allowing the president special emergency powers such as detaining people without trial. President elected directly by all voters. The vice- president would act for 90 days in case a vacancy in the office of the president. 1969. All members of electoral commission members were appointed by the president. 1975. President was allowed to pardon election offenders. 1979. Public servants who desired to vie for positions in general elections were required to resign six months before the general elections. 1982. The position of chief secretary as the head of civil service was created. 1985. Membership to the public service commission was increased from 7 to 17 members. 1986. The security of tenure of the offices of attorney-general, controller and auditor-general was lifted. Chief Secretary Position was abolished. 1990. The security of tenure attorney-general, controller and auditor-general was restored. 1992. The presidential term of office was limited to two. 1997. The number of electoral commissioner was increased to 24. Detention without trial was abolished. Public order act was amended to allow meetings without seeking permission from the police. The chiefs’ act was amended, limiting the chief’s power to arrest people, compel attendance at barazas and procure labour. 2008. National accord created the position of prime minister and two deputy prime minister. A coalition government was created and president to share power with the prime minister. Presidential appointments were to be made in consultations with the prime minister. 2010. Devolution of power through creation of county governments. The position of deputy president was created. Position of cabinet ministers was renamed to cabinet secretaries was set to a minimum of 14 and a maximum of 22. Cabinet secretaries were not to be members of parliament. All presidential appointments were to be approved by the national assembly. Changes in the judiciary. 1965. The title of the Supreme Court was changed to the high court. 1977. The Kenya court of appeal was established to replace the east Africa court of appeal which had collapsed along with the east African community. 1985. The high court became the highest court of appeal for election petition. 1986. All capital offences were made non-bailable. 1988. The period of detention before charging criminals was increased from 24 hours to 14 days. The security of tenure of the judges was removed. 1990. The security of tenure of the judges was restored. 2010. The Supreme Court was established as the highest court. The position of deputy chief justice was created. The judiciary service commission was reconstituted to include representatives of the public,judges,magistrates and the public service commission. Appointment of the chief justice was to be made by the president with recommendation of the judicial commission and subject to the approval of the national assembly. Changes in citizenship. 1986. Section 89 of the constitution that provided for the acquisition of citizenship by everyone born in Kenya after December 1983, was repealed. 2010. Dual citizenship was introduced. Citizens of the countries applying to be Kenyan citizens were not required to renounce their citizenship. . Changes in communication. 1997. Kenya broadcasting corporation act was amended to compel KCB to give fair coverage to all political parties. The film and stage plays act was repealed hence licensing of stage plays abolished. 2000. The communication commission of Kenya act was passed which allowed the establishment of more radio and television stations. Mobile phone companies were also allowed to operate. Changes in electoral laws. 2008. Electoral commission of Kenya was replaced by interim independent electoral commission. The interim independent boundaries commission was established to review electoral and administrative boundaries. 2010. The independent electoral and boundaries commission was established. Features of the constitution of Kenya. The Kenya constitution is a written constitution. It has 264 articles which are divided into 18 chapters. Sovereignty of the people and supremacy of the constitution. The constitution is the supreme law of the republic which binds all persons and all state organs at national and county levels. The republic. Kenya is a democratic state with multi-party. Citizenship. It outlines the entitlement of citizens, retention and acquisition of citizens and states how citizens may be revoked. Bill of rights. it contains the rights and fundamental freedoms of the citizens. Land and environment. It outlines the principles of land policy, provides a classification of land and establishes a national land commission. It gives the obligations of the state in respect of the environment and national resources. Leadership and integrity. It stated the responsibilities. Conduct, financial, probity and restrictions on activities of state officers. Representation of people. It outlines the general principles of the electoral system and process. Like: Legislation on election. Voter registration. Code of conduct for candidates. Voting process. Mechanism of dealing with electoral disputes. It also establishes the independent electoral and boundaries commission and provides for 290 constituencies for election of members to the national assembly. It regulates the establishment of political parties. Legislature. It established the bi-cameral legislature. It touches on: Composition and membership of parliament. Qualifications for election as a member of parliament. Representation of marginalised groups. Election of members of parliament. Clerks and staff of parliament. Terms of parliament. Vacation of office of Member of Parliament. Parliament’s general procedures and rules. Bills concerning county government. Officers of parliaments. Right to recall. Procedure for enacting legislation. The executive. It has the president, deputy president and cabinet. The president is the head of state and government. Judiciary. It creates and independent judiciary. It has system of courts with superior courts and sub-ordinate courts. The superior courts are the Supreme Court, the high court and the court of appeal. Subordinate courts are the magistrate and kadhis court. There is the judicial service commission and the judiciary fund. Devolution. It’s the sharing of power between the national and county government. Public finance. There is equitable sharing of national revenue. There is an equalisation fund, consolidation fund and revenue funds for county government. There is a commission on revenue allocation and a central bank. National security. There is establishment of a public service commission and teachers service commission. The values and principles of public service are outlined. National security. The Kenya defence forces. The national intelligence service. The national police. There is also the Security Council. Commissions and independent offices. These are established constitutional commissions like judicial service commission, national police service commission and national land commission. Independent offices are also established, e.g. auditor-general and controller of budget. Amendment of the constitution. Amendment by parliamentary initiative. Amendment by popular initiative. General provision. Mechanism for enforcement and interpretation of the constitution. Transitional and consequential provisions. Outlines the legislations required to effect the constitution and gives the transitional and consequential provisions.


The term democracy is derived from the Greek word democratia; which is formed from twp words demos, (people) and kratos(power or rule). This there means rule of the people. Democracy is a form of government where the political decisions are directly in the hands of the citizens. Abraham Lincoln, he definite it as a government of the people, for the people and by the people. Aspects of democracy. Political aspects. Its where there is sharing the consent of the governed is sought when making political decisions which is expressed directly or indirectly through their elected representatives. Social aspects. Is stress the value of human dignity, people are free to organize their own lifestyle, hold and express opinions, move about and enjoy the company of others. Economic aspects. It aims at providing equal opportunities to all citizens and seeks to eliminate exploration of humans by fellow humans. Types of democracy. Direct (pure) democracy. This is where all adult member of the society are free to participate directly in the affairs of state like legislation, policy and appointment or dismissal of public officials. It is practised through various ways like referendum, plebiscite and initiative recall. Referendum: this means must be referred to the people. Plebiscite: it is a device to obtain a direct popular vote on a matter of political importance. Initiative: the people initiate the legislation and refer it to the legislature for consideration. Recall: this is a method by which and elected representatives or official can be removed or dismissed. It also features in the constitution of Kenya. Indirect (representative) democracy. This is a system where the members of a state choose representatives to run their affairs. Characteristics of indirect democracy. Universal suffrage. Every person of age 18 and above has a right to vote. Free and fair election. There should be a transparency in election. People supremacy. The supreme controlling power is vested in the people and they exercise it through voting at regular election. Principles of democracy. Consent of the people. The supreme controlling power is the people; leadership in a democratic society should accommodate people’s needs and aspirations. Equality. There is need for equality among the people regardless of colour, sex or creed and provides every participant with equal opportunity to participate in the process of airing their views. Peace. The location in which democracy is expected to flourish should be free of all forms of intimidation and unrest that would deter people from freely expressing their opinions on various issues. The rule of law. Democracy recognises equality of everyone before the law with fair and outcome acceptable to the majority. Balance of liberty. The state makes the laws based on the consent of the people who are obliged to obey the law without feeling that their liberty is unduly restricted. Transparency and accountability. There is openness and accountability; this gives the citizens the confidence to trust their institutions. Competition. In democracy, different ideas compete for the citizens, attention and opinion. Free press. A responsible, free, independent and objective press is one of the pillars of democracy. Regular and free elections. The elections should be free and fair, this allows citizens to express their will. Multi-partysm. There is need to have many political parties in the country due to democracy. Economical freedom. There is economic freedom through private ownership of property and a free market economy. Citizens are free to pursue professions of their choice. Bill of rights. This is where bills of rights and freedom of the individuals are spelt out which forms part of constitution. Advantages of democracy. It is widely accepted form of government. It allows fair competition for power between all people. Promotes a sense of accountability and responsibility among leaders. Promotes fundamental rights and freedoms. Enables citizens to peacefully change their governments regularly and this minimises chances of political instability. It promotes co-existence thus encourage international co-operation. Serves as a means of political education since civic education is carried out before elections. Disadvantages of democracy. It disregards the interest of the minority. It is expensive to implement since both civic education and general elections require funding. The wealthy use their resources to influence the voters at the expense of those with limited resources. Its time consuming since certain procedures must be followed and the views of the majority sought before important decisions are made. It may promote inefficient leadership. As those elected are the most popular but may not possess the best leadership qualities. HUMAN RIGHTS. They are powers of free action, which every individual is endowed with by virtue of belonging to the human race. The United Nations charter on human rights. This was formed after the Second World War in a conference in San Francisco in 1945. It emphasised respect for basic human freedoms and set declaration on general principles of human rights and a convention to define specific human rights. On 10th December 1948, it adopted universal declaration of human right which was known as UN Charter on human rights. All countries which signed the charter undertook to promote human rights which the charter outlines as: Right to self determination. Equality among gender. The right to work. The right to just and favourable working conditions. The right to and adequate standard of living. The right to physical and mental health. The right to life. The right to fair trial. The importance of UN Charter on human rights. Protection of venerable groups that is the minority like children, women, the disabled from discrimination and exploitation. Provision of health care to the citizen by the government. The charter guarantees the individual’s right to a fiar trial. It promotes human dignity by emphasising the protection of fundamental human rights. There is protection of gender by equal opportunities and treatment for both men and women. It helps to promote the secretarial integrity and sovereignty of nations. The Kenyan bill of rights. The bill of rights is an expression of fundamental human rights and freedoms spelt out in a convention or constitution of a state which is contained in chapter four of the constitution of Kenya. It’s divided into five parts. General provisions relating to the bill of right. Rights and fundamental freedoms. Specific application of rights. State of emergency. The Kenya national human rights and equality commission. Purpose of the bills of rights. To preserve the dignity of individuals and communities. To promote social justice. To realise the potential of all human beings. General application of bills of rights. This applies to all laws and binds all state organs and all persons. It’s the duty of the state to observe, respect, protect, promote and fulfil the fundamental rights and freedoms. Every person has a right to institute court proceedings if a fundamental right of freedom is denied, violated or threatened. In the enjoyment of the fundamental rights and freedoms, one should not break the law of infringe into others rights. Application of Kenyan bills of rights to specific groups of people in Kenya. Children. The Kenyan bill of rights guarantees every child the right: To a name and nationality from birth. To free and compulsory basic education. To basic nutrition, shelter and health care. To be protected from abuse, neglect, harmful cultural practices, inhuman treatment and exploitation. To parental care and protection. Vote to be detained except as a measure of last resort. Persons with disabilities. To be treated with dignity and respect. To access educational institutions and facilities. To reasonable access to all places, public transport and information. To use sign language Braille or other appropriate means of communication. To access materials and devices to overcome constraints arising from the persons disability. Youth. Access relevant education and training. Have opportunities to associate, be represented and participate in all spheres of life. Access employment. Are protected from harmful cultural practices and exploitation. Minorities and marginalised groups. Participate and are represented in governance and other spheres of life. Are provided with special opportunities in educational and economic fields. Are provided with special opportunities for access to employment. Develop their cultural values, languages and practices. Have reasonable access to water, health services and infrastructure. Older members of society. To fully participate in the affairs of society. To pursue their personal development. To live in dignity and respect. To be free from abuse. To receive reasonable care and assistance from their family and state. Rights of arrested persons. To be informed promptly, in language that the person understands of: The person for the arrest. The right to remain silent. The consequences of not remaining silent. To remain silent. To communicate with an advocate and other persons whose assistance is necessary. Not to be compelled to make any confession or admission that could be used in evidence against the person. To be held separately from persons who are serving a sentence. To be brought before a court as soon as reasonably possible but to later than twenty four hours after being arrested unless the twenty four hours fall on a day outside of court hours. To be charged or informed of the reasons for the detention continuing or to be released. To be released on bond or bail on reasonable condition. Not to be remanded in custody for an offence which is punishable by a fine only or by imprisonment for not more than six months? Rights of persons detained, held in custody or imprisoned. Retention of all fundamental rights and freedoms except those incompatible with being detained held in custody or imprisoned. Entitlement to rights of habeas corpus. To humane treatment as spelt out in a parliamentary legislation. Treatment in keeping with relevant international human rights instruments. Kenya national human rights and equality commission. It was constituted by the constitution and has at least three and not more than nine members. The chairperson and members are identified and recommended through national legislation. Its function. To promote gender equality and equity generally. To promote the protection and observance of human rights. To promote respect for human rights and develop a culture of human rights in the republic. To monitor, investigate and report on the observance of human rights. To receive and investigate complaints about alleged abuses of human rights. To take steps to secure appropriate redress where human rights have been violated. To investigate or research on matters of human rights and make recommendations to the state. To ensure state compliance with obligations under treaties and conventions relating to human rights.