Q1. Outline six instructions given to man by God in the creation stories.

  • To control/ have dominion over all creation of God.
  • Till the land and subdue it.
  • Procreate/multiply and fill the earth.
  • Naming every creature. 
  • To choose between good and bad.
  • To obey Gods command.
  • To eat from the garden.

Q2.   State seven promises of God to kind David .

  • David’s name would be famous and great.
  • God would protect Israel oppression and make her live in peace. 
  • God would protect David from his enemies.
  • God would rise up an heir from David’s lineage to sit on the thrown. 
  • God would establish an everlasting kingdom for David.
  • David and his descendants would be blessed forever.
  • God would give Israel their own land to settle.
  • David’s descendants would rule forever.
  • The messiah would come from David’s lineage.
  • God would punish David’s sons when they did wrong as a father punishes a son.

Q3. Give reasons why Elijah faced danger and hostility as a prophet of God

  • He pronounced a severe drought in the name of Yahweh which lasted three and a half years and caused a lot of suffering in Israel.
  • He put the death of 450 prophets of Baal during the mt Carmel contest.
  • He boldly condemned King Ahab for taking Naboth's vineyard and having him stoned to death.
  • He pronounced God's severe punishment to the house of Ahab.
  • He condemned the worship of Baal which had been declared the official state religion.
  • It was an order from jezebel that Yahweh’s prophets should be prosecuted.

Q4. Explain the different ways in which Christians in Kenya use the bible to spread the Good news.

  • Reading the bible to others
  • It is used for instructing new converts
  • Preaching from the bible
  • Used as a textbook  in Christians Religious Education in school and colleges
  • Used as a  basis  reference book  in general search for knowledge
  • Christian hymns are derived from the bible e.g. psalms, magnificat, benedicts etc
  • Used in taking oaths

Q5. Give the consequences of sin according to genesis 3:11


  • Alienation from God/ separation  from God
  • Pain and sufferings/ hardships
  • Broken relationship  among  human beings
  • Shame. Embarrassment
  • Mistrust/ enmity among  people
  • Death
  • Irresponsibility
  • Punishment from God
  • Pride and  arrogance e.g. tower of Babel
  • Leads to being cursed  e.g. Cain
  • The ground was cursed on  account of man

Q6. What are teachings of the Genesis stories of creation?

  • God is the creator of the universe
  • God sustains  the universe
  • Everything that God  made is good
  • God is a God of order
  • Human beings were created in the  image of God and likeness of God
  • Human beings should observe the Sabbath
  • Human beings  were put  in charge of God’s creation
  • Human beings should procreate
  • Human beings should worship God only
  • God is a God of power
  • God is a true God
  • Plants/ animals/ sunshine and rains  were made  for the  benefit  of human beings
  • God ordained work/ man was commanded  to work
  • The woman was created to be a helper  and companion of man
  • Man and woman were complimentary  to each other and neither is subordinate to another
  • Marriage is ordained by God

Q7. Give seven reasons why Female Genital mutilation is discouraged in Kenya today. (7 marks)

i. It can lead to spread of STI/HIV AIDS if same instrument is used.

ii. Can lead to injury/mutilation of the reproductive organ of the initiates.

iii. It is against child/human rights because the child’s consent is not sought.

iv. It can cause psychological torture/trauma/lowers dignity.

v. It can lead to irresponsible sexual behavior as initiates are assured to be adults and ready for marriage.

vi. Can lead to early marriage. vii. Can lead to school drop outs.

viii. Can lead to bleeding/death.

ix. Can lead to separation/divorce as a result of lack of enjoyment of sex in marriage.

x. It can lead to disagreement in families. 7 x 1= 7 marks

Q8. State the responsibility of the living to the ancestors. (6 mark)

i. Pour libation to them.

ii. Sacrifice to them.

iii. Name their children after them

iv. Venerate them through prayers.

Q9. State the importance of prayer in a Christian’s life.

i. To gain power to overcome temptation.

ii. One is able to give thanks to God for blessings.

iii. Gives an opportunity to ask for forgiveness from God.

iv. Allows one to intercede for others in order to acknowledge God as the provider.

v. Enables Christians to exalt or glorify God.

vi. Christians are able to express their faith in God.

vii. It is a means of communicating with God.

viii. Gives a Christian an opportunity to worship God.

ix. Helps strengthen a Christian’s faith in God.

Q10. State ways in which the Christians in Kenya prepare new converts for the full membership of the church. (6 marks)

i. They give instruction on the Bible/church doctrines the history of the church.

ii. They are counseled on the Christian values.

iii. They are taught their duties/responsibilities in the church.

iv. They are taught catechism to prepare them for baptism.

v. They go through the sacraments of baptism/confirmation.

vi. New converts are introduced to the members of the congregating.

vii. Members of the church pay them pastoral visits. 1st 6 x 1= 6 marks

Q11. State problems that Moses faced as he led the Israelites during the Exodus.

i. Panic from the Israelites when they saw Egyptian army.

ii. Problem of lack of food/hunger/water.

iii. They encountered unfriendly tribes in the wilderness.

iv. Dangers posed by wild animals.

v. Problems of organizing/uniting the people for management.

vi. The people disobeyed Moses/became unruly.

vii. The people broke the commandment of god/worshiped the golden calf when Moses was away.

viii. The Israelites were travelling through unfamiliar routes/territories.

ix. Moses had to settle disputes among the people. 1st 4 x 2 = 8 marks

Q12. Describe the preparation for the Exodus. (6 marks)

i. Moses called the elders of the Israelites together to instruct them on what to do in readiness to leave Egypt.

ii. Each Israelite family was to slaughter a male lamb. (Small families were to team up with others.)

iii. Each family was to dip a spring of hyssop in the blood of the lamb and paint their beams/door pests with the blood.

iv. All the Israelites were to remain indoors for the night.

v. They were to roast the lamb whole.

vi. They were to eat the meat with bitter herbs and unleavened bread.

vii. If any of the meet remained, they were to burn it.

viii. The people were to eat the meat quickly/standing up/dressed as if ready for a journey.

ix. They were to prepare unleavened dough to take with them.

x. The Israelites were advised to take jewelry/gold/silver/clothes from their Egyptian master.
Any 6 x 1= 6 marks

Q13. State six minor prophets in the Bible. (6 marks)

i. Hosea

ii. Amos

iii. Jonah

iv. Nahum

v. Zaphaniah

vi. Joel

vii. Micah

viii. Habakkuk

ix. Haggai

x. Malachi 1st six x1= 6marks

Q14. Give seven reasons why pregnancy before marriage is rare in traditional African communities. (7 marks)

  • Pregnancy before marriage is rare in traditional African communities because sex education is given to the youth to instil discip1ine/ responsibility.
  • The youth are told the consequences of irresponsible sexual behavior.
  • In traditional African communities free mixing of boys and girls is restricted.
  • Girls and boys are taught to respect each other.
  • During social occasions young people are supervised to prevent misbehavior.
  • There is severe punishment if a girl becomes pregnant/a man impregnates a girl before marriage.
  • There are taboos on sexual relationship.
  • Early marriages are encouraged after initiation.
  • Virginity is highly valued/rewarded at marriage.
  • The parents are held responsible for their children’s misconduct.

Q15. State the importance of bride wealth in traditional African communities. (5 marks)

  • ·  In traditional African communities, bride wealth is given as a sign of commitment by the groom.
  • ·  It is a way of thanking/appreciating the bride’s family for taking good care of the girl.
  • ·  Bride wealth acts as an outward seal of the marriage contract/cements the marriage.
  • ·  It is a form of compensation to the bride’s parents/family for the loss of the girl’s services.
  • ·  Giving bride wealth is the evidence of the groom’s ability to take care of a wife/family.
  • ·  Bride wealth initiates a long-lasting friendship between the two families.

Q16.  Explain the socio-cultural changes that have taken place in traditional African communities in Kenya today. (8 marks)

  1. The mode of dressing has changed.
  2. There is introduction of new forms of worship/Christianity/lslam other World religions.
  3. Ancestors are no longer considered part of the family/not involved in the activities of the community.
  4. There is individual ownership of the land rather than communal ownership.
  5. Some rites of passage are no longer carried out/have been droppedl
  6. removal of teeth/female circumcision/tattooing/ear looping.
  7. People have migrated to urban centres/free inter-mingling of peoplel weakened family/clan ties.
  8. People can plan for the number of children to have/introduction of modem contraceptives.
  9. Homes for the aged have emerged/the old have been left on their own.
  10. New diet has been introduced/modern food.
  11. New form of govemment has emerged replacing the roles of elders/ specialists.
  12. Modem forms of technology/infrastructure have transformed life.
  13. Introduction ‘of formal education.

Q17. Explain the circumstances that led the Israelites to be taken to exile in Babylon during the time of Prophet Jeremiah. (7 marks)

  • ·  The Israelites had forsaken the covenant way of life.
  • ·  They had forsaken the religion of their forefathers/worshipped idols.
  • ·  Israelites had persecuted/rejected the prophets of Yahweh.
  • ·  They ignored the message of the true prophets.
  • ·  Their rulers were weak/did nothing to return the Israelites to the covenant way of life.
  • ·  Nebuchadnezzar had defeated the Egyptians/made it easy for his army to match north.
  • ·  Their King surrendered leading to their deportation to Babylon as exiles.
  • ·  There were intermarriages with foreigners.
  • ·  There were false prophets/priests who spoke lies/failed to speak the truth.
  • ·  The Israelites did not repent their sins as warned by Prophet Jeremiah.

Q18. State the relevance of prophet Jeremiah’s suffering to Christians today. (5 marks)

·  Christians should remain faithful to the call of God irrespective of challenges that they are facing.

·  They must be ready/Willing to proclaim the word of God always/at any time.

·  They should depend on God/be prayerful/draw their strength from God.

·  Christians should expect opposition while serving God.

·  Christians should forgive their offenders/not take vengeance.

·  They should be aware of false prophets in their midst.

·  They should endure/persevere during their suffering.

Q19. Describe the personal life of Prophet Jeremiah. (8 marks)

  • ·  Jeremiah was born in Anathoth near Jerusalem.
  • ·  He was the son of Hilkah the priest.
  • ·  While he was still a young man, he received God’s call.
  • ·  Jeremialfs call was in form of a dialogue with God.
  • ·  He had deep knowledge of history/law of Moses/teachings of earlier prophets.
  • ·  He led a lonely life/he did not marry/raise a family/did not attend social gatherings.
  • ·  He was rejected by people because of his prophetic mission.
  • ·  He suffered spiritually/emotionally but persevered.
  • ·  He was imprisoned for his message.
  • ·  Jeremiah fled to Egypt for refuge/is believed to have died there.

Q20. Explain four teachings of prophet Amos on social justice and responsibility in Israel. (8 marks)

  1. Oppression of the poor — The people of Israel sold the poor for silver/a pair of shoes/practiced slavery /misuse of garments taken in pledge.
  2. Corruption/bribery — legal injustices were taking place in court of law/ they took bribes/imposed heavy fines on the innocent.
  3. Greed/excessive luxury — Prophet Amos condemned the rich for being selfish/greedy/living in luxury at the expense of the poor.
  4. Self-indulgence/false sense of security — Amos condemned those leaders who could sit at their homes and expected the common people to go to them for help/advice.
  5. Cheating in business — they tampered with the standard Weighing scales so that the customer could get less than what they had paid for.
  6.  Overcharged on goods that were sold/sold goods of low quality to the poor/mixed grain with chaff.
  7. Robbery and violence — There was violence in the city/ great unrest/disintegration of the rule of lawl taking away their grain.
  8. Idolatry — The Israelites worshipped other gods/broke the commandments of God.
  9. Sexual immorality/temple prostitution-The Israelites had agreed to pagan practice of prostitution in the place of worship/wide spread sexual immorality in the land.
  10. Drunkenness — There was drunkenness in Israell the Nazazites were forced to drink excessive Wine.

Q21. Outline seven reasons why prophet Amos condemned idolatry in Israel. (7 marks)

  1. Idolatry was against the commandments of God.
  2. It showed lack of knowledge of the true God of Israel.
  3. It was an act of rebellion.
  4. Idols were powerless/could not save them.
  5. The worship of idols was an indication of the Israelites having abandoned the true/first love.
  6. Idolatry was like pursuing vanity/waste of time/useless.
  7. Idols were made by human beings.
  8. Worshipping of idols made the Israelites lose their identity as the chosen people of God.

Q22. Give five obstacles the church is facing in trying to curb injustice in Kenya today. (5 marks)

  1. There is rampant corruption/bribery in the society.
  2. Lenient punishment is given to those who break the laws.
  3. Breakdown of traditional customs/norms/permissiveness/moral decadence in the society.
  4. Existence of various forms of discrimination/tribalism/gender in the society.
  5. There is poverty/unemployment among the people.
  6. Lack of role models/some leaders are involved in practicing injustices.
  7. There are organized crime gangs/cartels in the society

Q23. Give six lessons Christians learn from the incident in which the Israelites broke the covenant at Mount Sinai. (6 marks)

  1. Christians acknowledge that God is more powerful than other gods/ idols.
  2. Christians should be patient.
  3. Christians should be merciful/show mercy to others Leaders should take their roles seriously/should be responsible.
  4. Christians learn that disobedience can result into suffering punishment.
  5. They leam that they should worship God alone Christians should condemn evil..
  6. They should exercise self—control.
  7. Christians should repent/ask for forgiveness/forgive others.
  8. Christian leaders should intercede for the people.

Q24. State six reasons Why Samuel was against kingship in Israel. (6 marks)

  1. The demand for a King was seen as a rejection of Yahweh as their unseen king.
  2. The King would force their sons to serve him as soldiers.
  3. The Israelites would be like other nations which did not know God/ lose their identity as covenant people.
  4. God would reject them as His people/would not hear their pleas when they call.
  5. The King would overtax them.
  6. The King would grab their land/other properties.
  7. The King would make them slaves.
  8. The King would introduce forced labour.
  9. The King would take their daughters as perfumers/cooks/bakers.

Q25. a) Describe how the Jewish community used the temple. (6 marks)

i. It was used for worship/prayer.

ii. It was the place where the law was taught to children/people.

iii. Priests burnt sacrifices/burnt incense in the temple to God.

iv. Purification rites were conducted there.

Q26. State the Problems that Moses faced as he led the Israelites during the Exodus.

i. Panic from the Israelites when they saw the Egyptian army.

ii. Problem of lack of food/hunger/water.

iii. They encountered unfriendly tribes in the wilderness.

iv. Dangers posed by wild animals.

v. Problems of organizing/uniting the people for management.

vi. The people disobeyed Moses/became unruly.

vii. The people broke the commandment of god/worshipped the golden calf when Moses was away.

viii. The Israelites were travelling through unfamiliar routes/territories.

ix. Moses had to settle disputes among the people. 1st 4 x 2 = 8 marks

Q27. Describe the Preparation for the Exodus. (6 marks)

i. Moses called the elders of the Israelites together to instruct them on what to do in readiness to leave Egypt.

ii. Each Israelite family was to slaughter a male lamb. (Small families were to team up with others.)

iii. Each family was to dip a spring of hyssop in the blood of the lamb and paint their beams/door pests with the blood.

iv. All the Israelites were to remain indoors for the night.

v. They were to roast the lamb whole.

vi. They were to eat the meat with bitter herbs and unleavened bread.

vii. If any of the meat remained, they were to burn it.

viii. The people were to eat the meat quickly/standing up/dressed as if ready for a journey.

ix. They were to prepare unleavened dough to take with them.

x. The Israelites were advised to take jewelry/gold/silver/clothes from their Egyptian master.
Any 6 x 1= 6 marks

Q28. Outline Isaiah's prophecy on the suffering servant   KCSE 2020 CRE PAPER 2 Q. 1(a)

  • KCSThe servant will succeed his work/will be highly honoured
  • His success/honour will surprise many who have witnessed his suffering
  • He will be despised/rejected/ignored by those who are with him
  • He will have nothing attractive/will be ordinary/simple
  • He will be harshly treated/ arrested/wounded/ a man of sorrow
  • His body will be buried with the bodies of the rich men
  • He will endure all that is done to him in silence
  • The servant will suffer for the sake of others
  • It is the will of God for the servant to suffer
  • His death  with bring forgiveness of sin

Q29. With reference to infancy in Luke1 and 2 explain Ways in which the birth of Jesus was an extraordinary event

  • The conception of Jesus was through the power of the holy spirit
  • Jesus was born of a virgin
  • His birth was announced by Angel Gabriel
  • His name was given before his birth
  • He was to be called the son of the most high God
  • He would be holy
  • He would have an everlasting Kingdom
  • When he was born, an angel appeared to the shepherds to announce his birth/ a multitude of angels sang songs of praise

Q30. Give six lessons Christians learn from the parent of John the Baptist

  • Christians should obey God's commandments
  • They should be patient/should perservere
  • Christians should be prayerful
  • Christians should lead holy life/be upright
  • Christians should desire to be led by the holy spirit
  • Christians should have faith in God/Believe in God's word
  • Christians should serve God irrespective of their circumstances
  • Christians learn that doubting God's word can lead to punishment

Q31. Give five reasons why Jesus was rejected in Nazareth

  • Jesus claimed to be the Messiah fulfilling Isaiah's prophecy
  • Jesus did not perform miracles in Nazareth as he had performed in Capernaum
  • He annoyed the listeners by telling them that their forefathers had rejected/persecuted the prophets of God.
  • He told the people that since they had rejected the good news, it would be given to the gentiles
  • The news in Nazareth were annoyed when Jesus compared them unfavourably to the Gentiles
  • He told them that no prophet is accepted in his own home town

Q32. CRE 2020  KCSE

  1. Minor  prophets   in  the  old  Testament
  • Hosea
  • Joel
  • Amos
  • Jonah
  • Obadiah
  • Micah
  • Nahum
  • Habakkuk
  • Zephaniah
  • Haggai
  • Zechariah
  • Malachi

b)The effects of the translation of the Bible into African languages

  • The scriptures have been written in languages that Africans can understand.
  • It has enabled  further spread of Christianity/ has led to more convenience
  • It led  to rise of African Independent Churches/schools
  • It led to development of reading/writing /formal education
  • It led the establishment of printing press to meet more demands of the  Bible/ publishing houses
  • It  led to further research into African  religious  heritage/practices
  • It has created jobs/employment in the printing firms /publishing firms
  • It led to Africans identifying with Christianity
  • It led to development of African/local languages
  • It has promoted ecumenical movements among Christians
  • It made  Africans to demand for leadership roles in church
  • It has led to division in the church due to distant interpretation of the scriptures


Ways in which Christians in Kenya use the Bible to spread the Goods News

  • Christians read the Bible to others so that they can hear the word of God/church sermons/weddings/burial ceremonies.
  • They use the Bible to instruct /teach new covenant.
  • The Bible as the main text in teaching/learning Christians Religious Education in Institutions.
  • They use the Bible as  a basic reference book in general search of knowledge
  • Christians used the bible to compose Christian songs/ hymns/drama
  • They used the bible when writing Christian books
  • It is used during discussions/study

2. a) activities carried out by the Israelites on the night of the Passover

      1. The Israelites slaughter the animals /goats
      2. The smeared blood on their doorpost/ frames
      3. They roasted the animals whole
      4. They ate unleavened bread/ bitter herbs
      5.  They ate while standing/ in a hurry
      6. They dressed/ packed their belongings
      7. They burnt the leftover/remains
      8. They remained in their houses/ indoors

(b) how Abraham demonstrated his faith in God

  1. He obeyed God’s call
  2. He agreed to enter into a covenant relationship with God
  3. Abraham was willing to sacrifice his only son Isaac
  4. He accepted to circumcised together with his household
  5. Abraham built alter for God at shechem and bethel
  6. He agreed to change his name and that of his wife
  7. Abraham believed in the promises give to him by God
  8. He abandoned the worship of idols/started worshiping the true God.

(c) Reasons why some people in Africa find it difficult to worship God

  1. Some people have a lot of wealth /affluence /power/pride
  2. Others find live in abject poverty hence they lose hope in God
  3. Some people are discouraged by bad examples set by some members
  4. Some people have no faith in God
  5. Some people give up on worshipping God when their needs are not met

3. The incident in which King Ahab took naboth’s vineyard

  1. Naboth had a vineyard in Jezreel,beside the palace of King Ahab
  2. King Ahab asked Naboth to give him the vineyard
  3. Naboth refuses to sell it to King  Ahab because it was an inheritance from his fore fathers
  4. King Ahab went home dejected
  5. His wife Jezebel asked him why he was sad
  6. The elders organized for Naboth to be punished
  7. King Ahab went to posses the vineyard
  8. Naboth was taken outside the city where he was stoned to death
  9. Jezebel wrote letters to the elders of of the city instructing them to accuse Naboth of blasphemy/treason

b)Forms of punishment prophesied by Elijah to King Ahab and Jezebel after taking Naboth’s vineyard

  1. The death of King would be on the same place where Naboth was stoned
  2. God would bring evil upon King Ahab
  3. God would take away the prosperity of Ahab /his rule would come to an end
  4. Dogs would like the blood of Ahab where Naboth’s blood licked
  5. All the male children /slaves of King  would be cut off
  6. Dogs would eat anybody from Ahab’s home who die
  7. Birds of the air would eat the body of Jezebel

(c)Lessons Christians learn from the Ministry of Prophet Elijah

  1. Christians should worship the true God  only
  2. Christians should courageously condemn all forms of corruptive/evil in society

Q33. 313/1 CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Paper 1 September, 2021 Time:  2 ¾ hours INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES   Write your Name, Adm. No. and index number in spaces provided above. Sign and write your class. This paper consists of six questions. Answer any five questions in the spaces provided. This paper consists of 2 printed pages. Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain all the pages are printed as indicated and no questions are missing.

  1. a) Give reasons why C.R.E as a subject is incorporated in to the curriculum in Kenyan school today.                                                                                                                    (6mks)
  1. To get better understanding of God.
  2. The learner acquires life skills to handle challenges in life/critical thinking.
  3. It leads to employment / career.
  4. It explain the origin and purpose of human beings on earth.
  5. Help one to acquire basic principles for Christian living.
  6. Helps one to respect his/her own religion as well as other people’s religion.
  7. It promotes national unity.
  8. It promotes Internationsl consciousness.
  9. It helps the learner to achieve the natural goals of Education.
  10. Provides answers to questions on mysteries of life.
  11. Helps a learner to develop a sense of self-worth and dignity.

b) By giving examples identify seven literary forms used in writing the Bible.         (7mks)

  1. Wise saying e.g proverbs.
  2. Prayers e.g Nehemiah
  3. Prophetic speeches e.g Jeremiah.
  4. Letters/Epistles e.g Romans.
  5. Legislative texts / legal expressions e.g Leviticus.
  6. Religious epics e.g Exodus.
  7. Philosophical essays e.g jab
  8. Gospels e.g Luke
  9. Sermons
  10. Poetry.
  11. Prose / Narratives.

c) Outline ways in which christians use the Bible in evangelization.                         (7mks)

  1. They use Bible to instruct/teach new converts.
  2. They use the Bible to compose Christian songs / films.
  3. It is used during Bible study.
  4. They use the Bible to provide guidance and counseling to errant members of the church and those whose faith are dwindling.
  5. Christians use the Bible to preach the word of God to others in church.
  6. Christians use the Bible to write Christian books and magazines.


  1. a) State six promises that God made to Abraham.                                                     (6mks)
  1. He would be the father of great nation / How many descendants.
  2. He will receive personal blessings / Die in peace.
  3. His name will be great.
  4. All those who bless Abraham would be blessed.
  5. All those who curse Abraham would be cursed/God would protect Abraham.
  6. He would be a source of Blessing to many/descendants.
  7. God will rescue Abrahams descendants.
  8. Through him, All nations of the earth would be blessed.
  9. God would give Abraham and his descendants the land of Canaan.
  10. God would make an everlasting covenant with Abraham and his descendants.
  11. He was promised a son/Heir.

b) Explain the significance of the preparations that the Israelites made in readiness for the Passover.                                                                                                                     (8mks)

  1. The Israelites were to ask for items such as jewelry and clothing from Egyptians to signify compensation to the Israelites for their hardwork while in slavery.
  2. Each family was to select either a male lamb or young goat of one year old and without blemish. The choice of the animal significant to innocent and purity of sacrifice.
  3. Each family was to smear the blood of the animal on the doorposts and lintels. This was Important in distinguishing the Israelites from the Egyptians.
  4. The meat was to be roasted whole because it was a faster means of cooking, this signified the haste with which the Israelites left Egypt.
  5. The Israelites were to eat the meat with bitter herbs and unleavened bread, the bitter herbs symbolized their bitter lives in slavery. The unleaven bread was an indication that the Israelites were in a hurry to leave.
  6. The Israelites were not to leave their houses until the next morning, this signified a new beginning for the Israelites.
  7. The Israelites were to dress up in readiness for the journey , they were to have their sandals on and their staffs in their hands , this signified their readiness to leave Egypt.

c) State the lessons that christians learn from the incident when Israelites broke the Sinai covenant.                                                                                                                      (6mks)

  1. Christians learn that they should worship God alone.
  2. Christians learn that they should lead a righteous life.
  3. Christian leaders should intercede for other people.
  4. Christians should be firm in making decisions / not be swayed.
  5. They should respect the authority/trust in God.
  6. Christians should repent their sins / ask for forgiveness.
  7. They should have faith / trust in God.
  8. Christians should respect the authority.
  9. They should be patient.
  10. Christians should condemn evil.


  1. a) Outline the prophecies Samuel gave the Israelites about kingship in Israel.          (7mks)
  1. The demand of a King was seen as a rejection of Yahweh as their King.
  2. The King would force their sons to serve him as soldiers.
  3. The King would take their daughters as perfumers/cooked balcers for the royal house.
  4. The Israelites would be like other nations which did not know God / losetheir identity as a covenant.
  5. God would reject them as his people /would not hear their pleas when they call.
  6. The King would over-tax them.
  7. The King would grap their land /other property.
  8. The King would introduce forced labour.
  9. Hereditary Kingship would bring dictatorship and appression.



b) State the life skills that Elijah used to fight against false religion in Israel.           (7mks)

  1. Assertiveness; He told Ahab that he was the cause of trouble in Israel.
  2. Creative thinking ; requested for a contest between Baal and Him.
  3. Decision making ; He killed the prophets and prophetesses of Baal.
  4. Self-esteem; He was convinced that God was on his side.
  5. Negotiation; Elijah asked Israelites to choose between Him and Baal.
  6. Conflict resolution; After context he convinced the Israelites that Yahweh is true God .
  7. Effective communication; he explained to the people how the contest was.
  8. Self-awareness; he knew that he was a time prophet.

c) Identify six problems  faced by church leaders when carrying out their duties in Kenya today.                                                                                                                          (6mks)

  1. Political Interface.
  2. Inadequate capital.
  3. Rejection from non-believers.
  4. Lack of proper understanding of the Bible.
  5. Emergence of cults.
  6. Existance of false preachers.
  7. Existence of devil worshipers.


  1. a) What were the characteristics of the true prophets in the Old Testament.             (7mks)
  1. They were God’s mouthpiece / spokes people/ mediators between God and the people.
  2. They responded to God’s call / in faith / they obeyed God’s call.
  3. They were called by God / divine call / Received messages from God.
  4. They were given specific tasks to carry out .
  5. They spoke the truth in all circumstances.
  6. They communicated God’s message with authority.
  7. Their prophecies came true/were fulfilled.
  8. They never worked for material gain / were not paid for their work.


b) State seven teachings of prophet Amos on remnants and restoration.                   (7mks)

  1. God would restore the dynasty of David after destruction.
  2. God would bring the people back to their land.
  3. The people would rebuiled their cities so that the remnant of Eden can occupy them.
  4. The land would be productive / grapes would be abundance /wine would be in plenty.
  5. The people would grow food and harvest it.
  6. The nation of Israel would never be taken into exile again.


c) What lessons to Christians learn from Amos’ teachings on judgement.                 (6mks)

  1. God expects moral and spiritual righteousness from his people.
  2. God will Judge and even punish the wrong doers.
  3. God is universal and will pass judgement on all sinners.
  4. Christians should put God’s teachings into practice and avoid false holiness.
  5. God hates sin, this is the reason why he judge all nations.
  6. Christian should be courageous as they face life situations, they should not give up.
  7. God will punish Christians more harshly than the non-christians, just as he punished Israel and Judah.


  1. a) Outline the content of Jeremiah’s letter to the exiles (Jeremiah 29)                       (7mks)
  1. He encouraged the exiles to build houses / settle down.
  2. Told them to plant gardens / eat their produce.
  3. Marry / have children so as to increase the numbers.
  4. He advised them to live in peace in Babylon and promote the welfare of the cities.
  5. To pray to their masters.
  6. Warned them not to listen to false prophets who lied to their /gave false hope.
  7. He told them that God would restore them to the land after seventy years.
  8. Encouraged them to trust in God and not give up/ God would answer their prayers.
  9. He told them that God had good plans for them.

b) Identify the occasions when Nehemiah prayed.                                                    (7mks)

  1. When he learned about the suffering of the jews back in Judah and the ruined Jerusalem.
  2. Before asking the King for permission to let him go back to Judah.
  3. When his enemies ridiculed the jews to discourage the rebuilding of the wall When he learned about his enemies conspiracy to attack Jerusalem.
  4. After condemnation of the appression of the poor. (Neh 5:19)
  5. When he was frightened by shemaiah to hide in the temple.
  6. When sanballat and tobiah falsly acused him of planning a revolt.
  7. When he cleansed and reorganized the temple for effective worship
  8. After warning the people of Judah against violating the Sabbath.
  9. After chasing away Sanballat’s son in-law for marrying a foreigner yet he was a priest. (Neh 13:29)

c) Give six leadership qualities demonstrated by prophet Nehemiah.                        (6mks)

  1. Hardwork / commitment.
  2. Courage / bravery.
  3. Faithfulness/prayerfulness/God fearing
  4. Initiative / Creative.
  5. Team builder / mobilize.
  6. Patriotic
  7. Diplomatic
  8. Effective planer.
  9. Wise/Intelligent.
  10. Compassionate / sympathetic
  11. Reformist.
  1. a) Give seven reasons why polygamy was a common practice in Traditional African Community.                                                                                                              (7mks)
  1. Many children are considered as a source of wealth / pride / labour.
  2. Its meant for effective family planning.
  3. Acquisition of wealth through pride price.
  4. More children ensured security in old age.
  5. Reduce irresponsible sexual behaviour.
  6. Curb childlessness / If the first wife is barren.
  7. Land is still empty to accommodate large families

b) Explain the significance of rituals perfomed after the death of a person in Traditional African Communnity.                                                                                      (6mks)

  1. Wailling / crying is a sign of sorrow/ announcing death.
  2. Prayers made to ask the ancestors to accept the dead in the spirit world.
  3. Shaving of hair signifies a new life in the community.
  4. Singing and dancing depict anger towards death/praise to the dead/ comfort.
  5. Making sacrifices and libations so as to appease the ancestors.
  6. Washing the dead body with bitter herbs to preserve it / show respect to the dead.
  7. Burying in the ancestral land shows one is still a community member.
  8. Burying the dead with his belongings symbolizes life after death.
  9. Feasting/eating signifies bidding farewell to the dead.
  10. Destruction of property signify disorder brought by death.
  11. Lighting a bonfire symbolizes chasing away of evil spirits.

c) State how the modern trends have affected the traditional African rights of burial.                                                                                                                                            (7mks)

  1. Urbanization has resulted in some of the dead buried in cemeteries.
  2. Economic hardship discourages elaborate funeral ceremonies.
  3. Foreign religions have introduced new burial practices.
  4. Western Education has influenced the adoption of foreign burial practices.
  5. Individualism has eroded communal participation in funerals.
  6. The outbreak of diseases has led to the control of the number of participants in funerals.
  7. Some people prefer cremation to burial.
  8. Economic hardship has made some burials to take place away from ancestral land.


1. (a)  Identify the teachings about human beings from the Biblical creation accounts.   (7 marks)

  •  Human beings are created in the image/likeness of God.
  • They have the breath of life from God.
  • They have been given authority/dominion over God’s creation.
  •   They communicate/fellowship with God.
  • They are special/the greatest of God’s creation.
  •   They have the ability to think/reason/make choices/decisions in their lives.
  • They are blessed by God.
  • They have been given a specific place to stay/garden of Eden
  • They are to take care of the creation/till the land/work.
  •  Human beings are to procreate/multiply through marriage.
  • Man and woman are to complement/provide companionship for each other
  • Human beings are to use the other creations/plants for their benefit.
  • Human beings are God’s creation/male and female.
  • The woman was created out of the man’s rib.

(b) State six reasons why the Bible had to be compiled into its present form by early Christians.   (6 marks)

  •  The eye witnesses of Jesus Christ were being killed/persecuted.
  •  In order to prevent information from being lost.
  •  Due to the expansion of the church/increased number of believers who needed material to refer to/for reference.
  •  To counteract false teachings/teachers who were confusing the believers.
  •  To ensure that same doctrines/beliefs were taught to all Christians.
  •  To reach out to Jews in diaspora/Gentiles.
  • To preserve an orderly account of Biblical themes/avoid distortion.

(c)Outline seven occasions when Christians use the Bible. (7 mks)

  • When preaching the word of God.
  • When in court of law.
  •  When instructing new converts/conducting Bible study.
  •  During different Christian ceremonies/marriage/ordination/baptism/burial.
  • When teaching Christina religion education.
  •  When composing songs/plays/skits.
  • During fellowships/prayers.
  • During a swearing-in ceremony/public office.

2. (a) Explain the meaning of the symbolic objects and acts used by the Hebrews on the night of exodus.    (7 marks)

  •   Moses was instructed by God to tell the Israelite elders to prepare for a sacrifice in readiness for divine liberation from slavery.
  • Each family was to participate in the sacrifice as a way of identification with the Hebrew community.
  • Each family was to select a young lamb without blemish to significance the purity/innocence of the sacrifice.
  • Each lamb was to be slaughtered and its meat roasted as roasting was the quickest way of cooking since the Israelites were in a hurry.
  •  Everything was to be eaten up as a way of leaving no mark in Egypt, a country of slavery.
  • The Israelites were to prepare unleavened bread to signify the lack of time/the purity of the bread.
  • The Israelites were to eat bitter herbs as a symbol of their suffering in  Egypt.
  •   The blood of the sacrificial animal was to be smeared on the door posts of the Hebrews to save them from the angel of death.
  •   Everyone was to remain indoors until morning so as to be protected from death/to strengthen one another.
  •  The Passover sacrifices were to be commemorated yearly and their reasons were taught to the next generations so as for them to know their history/remember how God saved them.
  • The Israelite women were to ask for jewelry, silver and clothing from the Egyptians as a compensation for the free labour they offered as slaves.
  •   The angel of death killed all the first borns of the Egyptians and passed over the houses of the Hebrews to spare the Israelite firstborn so as to be dedicated to God.
  • Moses was allowed by Pharaoh to lead the Israelites out of Egypt to signify that Moses was God’s appointed leader of Exodus.

(b) Relate the covenant ceremony between God and Abraham.  Genesis 15:1-19.   (7 marks

  • Abraham was in doubt of the promise of a son.
  •  God assured him that his own son would inherit him and not Eliezer of Damascus. Vs
  • God showed Abraham the many stars and confirmed that his descendants would be as the stars. Vs.6
  •  God asked him to bring a heifer, a goat, a ram each three years old and a  dove and a young pigeon. Vs.9
  •  Abraham cut the animals into two and arranged the halves in two rows.
  • The birds were not cut.
  •    He drove away the birds of prey that targeted the carcasses. Vs.11.
  • At sunset, Abraham fell into a deep sleep. Vs. 12.
  •   God spoke to him giving the promise that his descendants would be slaves for 400 years but he would set to liberate them. Vs. 14.
  •   Abraham was promised a long peaceful life. Vs.16
  • Abraham saw God pass through the carcasses in the form of a smoking fire   pot and a flaming torch/re affirms to give his descendants land.

(c) Give six reasons why church leaders in Kenya take vows before starting their mission.

  •   To receive God’s blessings/guidance.
  • To get acknowledgement from the people being served.
  •  It reminds the leader to stick to the church regulations/missions.
  •   To get the authority of God to lead.
  •     It gives the leader courage/confidence to do his/her work.
  •   It shows the willingness/commitment to serve/acceptance
  •    To emulate the Biblical way of commissioning servants of God.


 3 (a) Ways how King David is an ancestor of Jesus Christ.  (7mks)                                     

  • Saint Paul asserted that the good news of salvation is about the Son of God who took human nature and was born from David’s lineage.
  • The Gospels say that Jesus was born in the family of David as the Virgin Mary was betrothed to Joseph of the house of David.
  • In Matthew’s genealogy, Jesus was a descendant of King David.
  • In his annunciation message to Mary, the angel says that Jesus will be a king like his ancestor David.
  • Zechariah says that God has raised up a savior descended from the house of David.
  • Jesus was born in Bethlehem which was also the birth place of David.
  • The blind man at Jericho hailed Jesus as the Son of David.
  • In his triumphant entry to Jerusalem, Jesus was hailed by the crowd as the Messiah descended from David.

The early apostles like Peter made a number of references to Jesus as a descendant of David in their sermons.                                                                                                                                                                  7 x 1 =

b)   Ways King Ahab broke the covenant in the case of Naboth’s vineyard

  • He coveted Naboth’s vineyard 
  • He allowed his wife to  bear  false witness against Naboth
  • He had Naboth   killed/murdered
  • He took Naboth’s vineyard
  • He broke the Jewish law of ancestral land
  • As a king, he failed to protect the weak/poor as demanded by Mosaic law         (6x2= 6mks)


c) Reasons why it has been difficult to fight the evil of Bribery and corruption in Kenya today.                                                                                                                                 (7mks)


  • Lack of political will in the fight against corruption.
  • Weak legislative framework/the laws made lack ‘teeth’ to bite.
  • Limited resources for effective fight against corruption
  • The general public perception that there is nothing to be done about corruption and is there to stay.
  • Weak institutions and poor corporate governance.
  • The complexity and mutative nature of corruption – corrupt practices change and adopt new regulations.
  • Moral delay in society/moral decadence/lack of Christian principles.
  • The standards and practices in the anti-corruption body is not upto date. It suffers credibility issues.
  • The code of ethics for public servants are not yet at its full operation/development.
  • The investigative arm on corruption is not well developed and lacks emphasis.
  • Law enforcement mechanism on would be culprits is weak/lacks the full powers.
  • Lack of role models
  • Publicity on the effects of corruption is not given the urgency it deserves.


(Any 7 X 1 = 7 Mks) 


4. a) Roles of prophets in the Old Testament.                                                        


  1. Prophets conducted prayers for the community/Israel.
  2. They interceded with God on behalf of the people.
  3. They interpreted God’s message sent in form of dreams and visions.
  4. They communicated God’s message/will to the people.
  5. They carried out God’s commands/mission to the people.
  6. They foretold the future events/predicted future occurrences.
  7. They taught/guided and counseled the people against abandoning God’s law.
  8. They condemned social injustices/evils committed against the poor.
  9. They warned people of God’s coming punishment/judgement.
  10. They assured the Israelites of their hope/future salvation
  11. They revealed God’s nature as merciful, loving to the people.
  12. Some acted as advisors to kings/acted conscience to kings.
  13. Some anointed kings before assuming their mandates.
  14. Acted as priests/offered sacrifices on behalf of the people.


(Any 7 X 1 = 7 Mks) 



b) State the teachings of Prophet Amos about the Day of the Lord.                               


  1. It will come unexpectedly/sudden
  2. It will be a day of darkness and not light/gloom.
  3. People will mourn and wail
  4. Israel will be defeated by their enemies
  5. A day of thirst and hunger for God’s word/ a day of famine and drought.
  6. A day of judgement for Israel’s sins
  7. There will be earthquakes
  8. A day when feasts and festivals will not be joyful.
  9. All wicked people would not escape God’s severe judgement on their sins.
  10. There will be cosmic signs i.e solar eclipse.


(Any 7 X 1 = 7 Mks)


c) Identify six forms of hypocrisy in the church in Kenya today.                        

  1. Insincere worship which involves elaborate rituals without inner piety/purity.
  2. Religious syncretism where they worship God and modern idols.
  3. Idolatry where Christians engage in the worship of many gods e.g money, beauty, sports etc.
  4. Use of spiritual gifts for selfish gains other than glorifying God.
  5. Praying with intent to show off as opposed to humility in prayer.
  6. Showing off riches/ones wealth during offerings/tithe giving.
  7. Practicing social evils yet professing being a Christian.
  8. Being enemies/unforgiving Christians.
  9. Divisions in the church.


(Any 6 X 1 = 6 Mks)









5 a) Outline Jeremiah’s teaching on the New Covenant.                                       (7 marks)

  • The laws will be written in people’s hearts
  • Every individual will know God individually
  • God was to forgive their sins and remember them no more.
  • There will be individual responsibility for one’s sins.
  • The new covenant will be initiated by God
  • The new covenant was to last forever and not be broken any more.
  • It will result in emergence of a new people of God or new Israel.
  • It will be established after God had punished the Israelites and this are the remnants
  • In the new covenant a ‘righteous branch’ would be established.

  b) State seven teachings of Jeremiah on Judgement and Punishment.              (7 marks)

  • God is a just judge – punishes for a reason.
  • God will punish Judah as a group – the entire nation will be punished
  • God punishes by looking at the heart
  • God’s judgement will by means of political events
  • God’s judgement was inevitable and unavoidable
  • God’s punishment will be in form of natural disasters
  • God’s judgement is universal
  • Yahweh punishment is meant to correct a sinner.
  • God gives the people a chance to repent before punishment
  • Yahweh’s punishment is real – though it may take long it will surely come to pass

  c) identify the evils that church leaders condemn today.                         (6 marks)

  • Hypocrisy/ pretense
  • Murder/suicide/abortion/genocide
  • Witchcraft/divination/sorcery
  • Exploitation of the poor
  • Dishonesty
  • False prophecy
  • Bribery and corruption
  • Class society – the rich vs the poor


6    a) State any seven roles of ancestors in traditional African society.         (7 marks)

  • They bless the members of the living members/source of blessings
  • They mediated between the living and God
  • They welcomed the dead into the spiritual world.
  • They were custodians of customs and morality
  • They were consulted in difficult times to give directions on issues of inheritance of property.
  • They bring punishment to the wrong doers.
  • They warn on the impending punishment to those who fail to carry out their wishes
  • Through the ancestors the living has a sense of belonging or identity.
  • They provide a reservoir of names for children born.

  b) identify the importance of naming in traditional African society.                 (7 marks)

  • Naming gives a child identity to be considered a full member of the community
  • Names are also given in honor of the ancestors as they are named after their dead relatives
  • It is a way of remembering important events in the society
  • It is a sign of acceptance of the children in the new family.
  • Naming ceremonies also provide opportunity to teach the culture to the youth
  • Names could also depict the character of the child.
  • It’s also a way of showing respect to God for the gift of the children
  • Naming ceremonies bring unity among the people who come to celebrate together.

  c) What are the factors that affect initiation rites today.                         (6 marks)

  • Christianity condemns rituals associated with initiation.
  • Government policy which banned female genital mutilation
  • Formal education which gives no time for initiation rites
  • Migration which leads to mixing of various cultures and hence decline of cultural values
  • Economic hardships making it difficult to hold elaborate initiation ceremonies
  • Modern technology has more modern surgeons than the traditional ones
  • Effects of western lifestyle which has led to the decline of traditional African values.





1 (a)Give reasons why the bible is referred to as the word of God.              (5marks)

(b)  Outline the differences between the traditional African view of evil and the biblical concept of sin.       (7marks)

        c)  Identify ways in which evil is corrected in the Traditional African Communities.        (8marks)