KCSE-History and Government

Q1. what is history?

The study of man's past chronological accounts and record of events in reaction to the environment

Q2. Identify the immediate cause of First World War

Assassination of Archduke Franz  Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo

Q3. What were the causes of First World Wars?

  1. The arms race in Europe encouraged aggression
  2. The disagreement between Britain,France and Germany over Morroco created tension.
  3. European imperialism. Dissatisfaction during the sharing of colonies at the Berlin Conference created distrust among the European.
  4. The defeat of France by Germany in the Franco-Prussian Wars made France to look for an excuse to go to war.
  5. The assassination of the Autria-Hungary heir apparent Franz Ferdinand by Gavrillo Princip at Sarajero sparked the war
  6. Nationalism in the Balkans. Many European powers querreled because of support of different nationalities which wanted independence from Turkey
  7. The economic rivalry between Britain and Germany created tension in Europe.

Q4. Discuss the results of the first world wars(1914-1918)  (10 Marks)    

Political Results

  1. New nations such as Hungary and Yugoslavia were created in Europe.
  2. The U.S emerged as the leading world power since her economy was still intact
  3. The size of Germany was reduced as France regained her lost provinces of Alsace and Lorraine from Germany
  4. The existence of a greater turkey was undermined as part of turkey were granted independence
  5. It led to the creation of the league of nations to maintain international peace and security
  6. It led to the emergence of communism in Russia which hastened the collapse of the Tsarist regime
  7. It led to the development of nationalism among the colonized people such as Indians and Africans who were involved in the war.
  8. It led to the rise of dictators such as Adolf Hitler who became architects of the second world war.

Economic Results

  1. European governments spent huge huge sums of money
  2. There was massive destruction of properties.
  3. It led to economic depression.

Social Results

  1. Thousands of people lost their lives during the war.
  2. It created a refugee problem in Europe as thousands of people were displaced and rendered homeless.
  3. The outbreak of a deadly Spanish epidemic flu during the war caused the death of many people.
  4. There were misery and suffering due to the separation of families during the war. It led to starvation as the War discouraged the practicing of agriculture which would produce food for people.

Q5. List two reasons why United States of America joined the allied powers during the First World War

  1. Germany's declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare/sinking of US's ships by Germany.
  2. The zimmerman letter by Germany urging Mexico to attack U.S.A
  3. Growing public opinion in USA in favour of allies
  4. The defeat of the allies would make USA lose a great deal in contracts and loans

Q6. Why was the United States of America reluctant to join the First World War during the initial stages?

  1. To abide by the terms of the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 that forbade her from interfering in European affairs
  2. The war had not interfered with U.S's interest until 1916.
  3. Fear of revolt by her citizens of German origin.
  4. U.S.A had trade relations  with both allies and central powers

Q7. Give five reasons, which led to the migration of the Cushites into Kenya before 1800.

  1. Need for pasture for their animals       
  2. Population pressure
  3. External attacks
  4. Outbreak of disease
  5. Family and clan feuds
  6. Escape from drought and famine          
  7. Adventure                                         
  8. Search for fertile land

Q8. Describe the economic activities of the Cushites in the pre-colonial period.

  1.  The Cushites practiced pastoralism. They kept camels, goats, cattle, and donkeys.
  2. Some of the Cushites who lived in oasis and along the river valleys practiced subsistence agriculture. They grew grain crops, vegetables, dates, and bananas.
  3. hey practiced iron smelting. They made iron eg. swords, knives, bangles, and arrow­heads.

Q9. State five results of the settlement of the Gikuyu in the Mount Kenya region during the pre-colonial period

  1. The settlement of the Agikuyu in the Mt Kenya region led to the intermarriage with their neighbors e.g Akamba and Maasai.
  2.  It brought about the expansion of trade in the region,
  3. Some communities were displaced by the Agikuyu e.g. the Okiek
  4. Some communities were assimilated by the Agikuyu e.g. the Okiek/increase in the population in the area.
  5. It promoted cultural interaction between communities e.g. dressing and ceremonies,
  6. It promoted conflicts in the region over land grazing areas and cattle.

Q10. Describe the political organization of the Agikuyu during the pre-colonial period.

  1. The Agikuyu were divided into clans. Each clan was made up of several sub-clans (Mbari) with common descent and usually living in the same ridge.
  2. Each ridge was under a Muthamaki (spokesman). He was the chairman of the council. Muthamaki emerged due to his personality and leadership potential.
  3. Each sub-clan was ruled by a council of elders/Kiama. The council performed religious, It, “administrative and judicial roles.
  4. There existed two-generation sets (Marika) Mwangi and Maina. The council performed religious administrative and judicial roles.
  5. The warrior class was responsible for defence. A council of war directed them.
  6. Other leaders such as the prophets, priests, and diviners played important role in the society.
  7. Some individuals rose to top positions of political importance in the late 19th Century as a result of exemplary contributions to society and wealth acquired.

Q11. State five economic activities of the Kalenjin during the pre-colonial period.

  1. The Kalenjin practiced livestock keeping   
  2. They practiced crop farming/agriculture.
  3. They were practicing iron making.
  4. Hunted and gathered wild fruits and rocks.

Q12. Give five reasons for studying history.

  •   Assumption of knowledge about the past
  • Using it to develop a sense of time
  • To develop a sense of belonging/culture
  • To learn from past mistakes and achievements.
  • Provide intellectual fulfillment
  • To develop critical thinking/reasoning                                              
  • Helps us appreciate why we need a government                            
  • Instill a sense of patriotism and national pride                                           
  • Helps us in the attainment of a profession.

Q13. State five factors that contributed to the development of Trans – Sahara trade.

  • Availability of commodities of trade especially gold and salt.
  •  Introduction and use of camels for transport.
  • Existence of local trade in the region.
  •  Existence of a strong economy based on agriculture/rich agricultural goods.
  • Existence of rich merchants who invested in the trade/middle mean/ availability of capital.
  • Strong and able leaders provided security to traders,
  • Demand for commodities of trade.

Q14. Explain five factors that contributed to the decline of the Trans -Sharan Trade.

  • The minefields got exhausted - this discouraged traders from coming to West Africa/lack of trade commodities,
  • Political instability in the region brought about anarchy and insecurity. This affected trading activities in the region/fall of empires.
  • Invasion of the region brought about anarchy and insecurity,
  • The Moroccan invasion of Western Sudan in the 16th Century undermined the trade as it created anarchy and insecurity in the region.

Q15. What factors encouraged the Akamba to participate in the long-distance trade during the  19th Century.

i)          Demand for their commodities.                                                                                       

ii)         Availability of trade goods.

iii)       Unsuitable climatic conditions for farming.

iv)        Proximity to the coast.

v)         Existence of entrepreneurs like Chief Kivoi.

vi)        Existence of a well-organized trade.