Give two ways through which volcanic rocks formed
What is weather?
This is the state/condition of the atmosphere of a given place at a given time or over a short period of time
Differentiate between folding and faulting
Give two types of folds
Give one feature formed when;
(i) tectonic plates move toward each other
ii) tectonic plates move away from each other
State three effects of the movements of the sun around the earth
State three characteristics of a Stevenson's screen
Name the grassland found in the following countries
(i) Canada - Praires
(ii) Russia - Steppes
State three ways in climate influences the desert vegetation
Differentiate between aridity and desertification
Aridity refers to the state of land being deficient in moisture leading to scanty vegetation or lack of vegetation completely while desertification is the slow and steady encroachment of large areas of barren land covered with sand onto formerly productive agricultural land
State four ways in which human activities causes aridity and desertification
Describe three theories that explain the formation of Fold Mountains
The Contraction Theory
After the formation, the earth's surface rocks cooled faster than those of the interior. As the interior continued to cool the surface rocks wrinkled to fit on the contracting interior leading to fold mountains
The Convection Theory
Convectional currents within the molten rock in the mantle move in circular motion towards the crust. These currents exert a frictional drag with the sima rocks causing crustal rocks to move horizontally resulting into the formation of fold mountains
Plate Tectonics Theory
When an oceanic plate meets a continental plate, the dense oceanic plate sinks beneath the higher continental one. The lighter continental plate due to compression crumbles to form fold mountains
Define the term environment (KCSE 2020 GEOGRAPHY PAPER 1 BEGINS HERE)
Name two divisions of the physical geography
Give three characteristics of Comets
State three proofs that show that the shape of the earth is spherical
Give two types of igneous rocks
Identify three uses of rocks
The table below shows the rainfall and temperature data for town Y. Use it to answer the questions
(a) (i) What is the mean annual range of temperature
(21-13) = 8 degrees celsius
(ii) Calculate the rainfall total for town Y
(b) state three climatic conditions experienced in the hot deserts
Differentiate between ocean and sea
The diagram below shows the coastal features. Name the features labelled E, F, G
Define the term vulcanicity
It is the process through which solid, gaseous and solid materials are forced into the earth's crust or onto the surface of the earth due to high pressure and temperature
Name three stages in the life cycle of a volcano
Describe how the following volcanic features are formed
Geography Paper 2 questions
What is a mineral ore?
state three formations in which mineral ores occur in the earth's crust
What is cottage industry?
Identify two areas in Kenya where wind energy is harnessed
Give three advantages of wind energy
b) State three importance of studying geography. (3mks)
b) State three ways in which minerals occur. (3mks)
b) List three traditional methods of fishing. (3mks)
b) State three characteristics of shifting cultivation. (3mks)
b) Name three polders in Netherland. (3mks)
G L A C I A T I O N
Glaciation: - is the action of moving ice on the surface of the earth. It involves erosion, deposition, and transportation. i.e. the process by which landscape is sculptured by the action of moving ice
Ice: - refers to solid water formed by freezing and condensation of atmospheric water vapour
Snow: - are falling pellets of frozen water from the atmosphere
Glacier: - is a mass of ice of limited width moving outwards from an area of accumulation
Ice sheet: - is a large and continuous mass of ice that covers a large area of a lowland
Ice cap: - is a permanent cover of ice on the earth’s surface covering smaller sections of land
Iceberg: - permanent floating ice in large water bodies e.g. oceans
Movement of Ice:
Ice moves outwards from its area of accumulation through the following processes:
a. Basal slip
b. Extrusion flow
c. Plastic flowage
d. Basal slip
The weight of ice causes the ice layer in contact with the rocks beneath to melt slightly.
This creates a film of water which acts as a lubricant between the ice and rock surfaces.
The force of gravity then causes the ice to slip and slide over the underlying rock.
b. Extrusion flow
When ice accumulates, it builds up to great thickness at the centre.
The resultant weight compresses the layers of ice beneath forcing them to spread out where there is less pressure.2
c. Plastic flowage
Within a mass of ice, great pressure is exerted on the layers at the bottom, sides, and centre.
This pressure causes some ice particles to melt slightly thereby shifting their position slightly downhill before refreezing
Factors influencing the rate at which ice moves.
i. Gradient of the land- Ice moves faster on steep slopes compared to gentle slopes due to the influence of the force of gravity
ii. Thickness and weight of ice - Thick glacier moves faster as a result of their own weight exerting pressure at the bottom. This induces slight melting hence faster movement
iii. Friction - The movement of ice within a valley glacier is faster at the centre where friction is least than at the sides and at the bottom.
iv. Season – movement of ice is faster during summer because the ice thaws more frequently
Processes of Glaciation
This involves glacial erosion, glacial transportation, and glacial deposition
This involves plucking, abrasion, and sapping
This is caused by rock debris that is embedded in a glacier.
This debris scratches, scrapes, and polishes the rock surfaces over which the glacier moves
This refers to the breaking of rocks through alternate freezing and thawing of the water
contained in the cracks between the glacier and the floor/side of the mountain
3. Factors Influencing Glacial Erosion
i. Nature of the underlying rock
Well-jointed/faulted rocks are easily eroded by the plucking process since the joints allow water to enter into the rock.
Soft rocks are eroded faster by abrasion compared to hard/resistant rocks.
ii. Availability of debris
Debris acts as an erosive tool. The more the debris embedded in the ice the more effective is abrasion process.
iii. Speed of the glacier
The faster the speed the greater the erosive energy.
iv. The thickness and weight of the glacier
A thick glacier exerts great pressure on the underlying rock causing weathering.
The rock debris embedded in the glacier is pressed down by the thick glacier to erode by abrasion.
Materials transported by a glacier are called moraine. It consists of a variety of materials such as rock fragments, sand, gravel, and boulders
Moraines are of the following types:
a. Ground moraine: - load carried at the base or beneath a glacier
b. Lateral moraine: - load carried along the sides of the glaciers
c. Medial moraine: - load carried on the surface but at the centre
d. Terminal moraine: - material deposited by the glacier at the point where it melts
Sometimes, parts of a glacier may become so heavily ladened that its ability to transport itssub glacial moraine is reduced or stopped, deposition then occurs
Glacial deposits are divided fluvioglacial and till deposits
Fluvio – glacial deposits are materials deposited by water from melting ice in a glacier whereas tills are moraines/materials deposited by ice on melting
4. Factors influencing glacial deposits
a. Gradient or slope of the area: - gentle slopes allow for the accumulation of large sheets of ice and subsequent deposition of fluvioglacial material (materials deposited by meltwater).
b. Stagnation of glacier: - leads to pressure being exerted at the base of the glacier which in turn leads to the melting of the base. The melt water then carries and deposits materialsm underneath the ice.
c. Friction between the moving ice and the rock surface leads to deposition of the heavy materials underneath the ice.
d. Weight of the glacier: - heavy glaciers tend to be deposited faster/more
e. Amount of glacial drift (till and fluvio glacial deposits). When a glacier has so many subglacial moraines, it becomes too heavy forcing it to deposit some of its load.
Resultant features of glaciation in highlands/highland areas
These are narrow sharp edged steep ridges that separate two corries/cirques
They form when two cirques cut back to back through headward recession i.e. backwardcutting of the walls of a cirque through plucking and nivation.
This results in very steep and sharp ridges called arêtes
iii. Pyramidal peak
Examples of pyramidal peaks include Corynder and Delamere on Mt. Kenya. Also
Albert, Margherita and Alexandria peaks on Mt. Ruwenzori
iv. U shaped valleys/glacial trough
These are flat and nearly flat bottomed valleys with steep sides and a U shaped cross
A pre-existing river valley is filled with ice/glacier
As ice moves downstream, tributary glaciers increase the amount of ice in the main
Glacier erodes the V-shaped valley by plucking and abrasion
The interlocking spurs are trimmed into truncated spurs.
The glacier deepens, widens and straightens the valley floor forming a U-shaped glacial
Other erosional and depositional features formed within the glacial trough are alluvial
fans and lateral moraines
Diagram on long profile section of a glacial trough6
v. Hanging valleys
During the formation of a glacial trough, a small valley is left hanging above the major or
over deepened valley called a hanging valley
Initially there is a main valley and a tributary valley
Ice fills into these valleys
The main valley is eroded faster as it contains more ice compared to the tributary
valleys. The floor of the main valley thus it at a much lower level than the tributary
The ice melts and the tributary valleys are left at a higher level than the main valley
They are seen to hang above the main valley as hanging valleys.
Hanging valleys are common on the middle slopes of Mt. Kenya where they form
waterfalls e.g. Vivienne falls
This is a submerged glacial trough on a highland coast formed after a glaciated valley is
drowned/submerged by sea/ocean
Action of ice through plucking and abrasion results in the widening and deepening of the
lower sections of an already existing river valley
With time, glacier disappears after melting leaving behind a steep sided valley.
When there is a rise in the sea level, the straightened and deep glacial valley is
drowned/submerged by the sea water to form fiords/fjords
They are mainly found in temperate lands along the Scandinavian countries
vii. Rock basin
This is a depression within a glacial trough where differential erosion has taken place
especially areas that have less resistant rocks.
At the point where two glaciers converged erosion is greater resulting in the formation of
a glacial depression called a rock basin.
They also form in areas with less resistant rocks where the glacier removes these (less
resistant rocks) through abrasion and plucking; leaving behind a shallow depression
called a rock basin7
Later, during the post glacial period, water may accumulate in the rock
basin/depression/hollow to form lakes called finger or ribbon lakes
Resultant features of glaciation in lowland areas
These include both erosional and depositional features
i. Ice eroded plains
These are extensive and almost level lowlands that were previously under ice sheets
During glacial transportation, ground moraine erodes the rocks on the existing
landforms through abrasion and plucking to form long and extensive plains called ice
Lowland glacial areas may comprise of less resistant rocks that are easily eroded by
The glacier scoops out the materials from the surface through plucking and then
lowers it to form shallow depression.
This depression may later fill with melt water to form a glacial lake
iii. Roche Mountonee
This is a rock outcrop that has been eroded by the glacial processes of abrasion and
Abrasion polishes and smoothens the upstream side of the rock outcrop whereas
plucking will make the downstream end to steep and rugged
They are common in mounts Kilimanjaro and Ruwenzori8
iv. Crag and tail
A crag is a steep-edged rocky outcrop or a hill side rock projection which protects a
mass of less resistant/softer rock (tail) on the downstream side of the glacier from ice
The crag usually lies on the path of oncoming ice; the ice moves over and around the
crag but only slightly erodes its sides. The material that was being carried by the
glacier is deposited on the downstream/leeward side.
Such deposits and the softer rocks form an elongated tail
This is a large boulder rock which has been transported by a glacier so that it rests on a
country rock which is different from it i.e. it has no relationship with the rock material
found in the area of deposition
They are deposited on the inlands when the ice melts
ii. Boulder trains
This is a group of erratics obtained from the same bedrock and which are deposited with
their apex pointing to the origin of the deposited materials in a linear form
This refers to unsorted and heterogeneous mixture of rocks, clay and sand that are
transported and deposited by the ice sheet on melting.
They are of two types namely: lodgment and ablation tills
Lodgment tills are deposited over the ice at the base as a glacier reaches its melting
point and the ice moves. The moving ice aligns the debris onto the sub glacial surface
Ablation tills are deposited when the ice melts
iv. Kames and eskers
Kames are isolated hills made of sand and gravel which have been deposited in layers
by glacial water9
They are built by streams emerging at high levels from temporary and stagnant ice
As the glacier front recedes, unsupported back of deposits collapses leaving a steep
faced hill called kames
Eskers are long winding ridge of coarse sand and gravel that is formed by streams that
flow continuously beneath/within the ice but in a parallel direction to the moving ice
As the ice front recedes, the streams continuously deposit the materials to form a long
winding ridge called eskers
v. Terminal moraines
This is a long ridge of moraine formed by extensive deposition of moraine along the
edge of an ice sheet.
It is formed when the ice remains stagnant for a long time causing the ice at the edges of
the ice sheet to melt
vi. Outwash plain
This is a wide and gently sloping plain of gravel, fine sand and clay
It forms when large ice sheets stagnate on a gently sloping landscape and start melting
along the edges.
The sub glacial melt water spreads out carrying fine materials which are deposited
further down slope as the ice retreats.
Pre-existing valleys are buried by these fluvio-glacial materials.
The unconsolidated clay, silt, sand and gravel are deposited in mass covering a wide
area forming an undulating plain called an outwash plain
These are smooth and long hills deposited and shaped under an ice sheet or a very
They are formed beneath the ice due to friction between the bedrock and the boulder
This results to deposition of clay at the valley bottom.
Further deposition leads to large mounds of till forming
The moving ice streamlines the till that had been deposited irregularly resulting into
elongated egg-shaped hills called drumlins10
Significance of Glaciation
i. Outwash plains, old glacial beds and tills are at times very fertile thus leading to the
development of agriculture e.g. wheat producing regions within the Canadian prairies
ii. Some glacial lakes provide natural waterways e.g. the Great Lakes of Canada and North
America thus facilitates transport and communication
iii. Glaciers on highlands may form sources of river e.g. R. Tana on Mt. Kenya
iv. Waterfalls resulting from hanging valleys provide suitable sites for the generation of HEP
v. Glaciated mountain regions and their resultant features e.g. cirques, pyramidal peaks, etc.
attracts tourists during winter for games/sports hence earning foreign exchange
vi. Sheltered waters in the fiords provide suitable breeding grounds for fish and sites for
construction of natural harbours
vii. Sand for building and construction can be harvested from outwash plains, kames and
viii. Glaciation results into rugged landscape that makes settlement and construction of transport
and communication difficult
ix. Extensive areas of land are sometimes turned into glacial lakes by deposits from moraine
thus reducing the amount of land available for settlement
x. Some outwash plains may contain infertile sandy soils that hinder agricultural practices