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Impact of ICT on Society

Effects of ICT on Employment Lesson I

By the end of the lesson you should be able to:

  • Describe the effects of ICT on Employment

Effects of ICT on Employment

Job Creation

Several jobs that require ICT skills have been created. Examples of new jobs arising from ICT are: Information Managers, System Analysts, Programmers, Network Administrators, Network Installation, Web Designing, Data Entry Clerks, Database Managers

Job Replacement and Displacement

Manual jobs have been replaced by automated machines and computers. Examples of job displacement include:

  • robots are now used to do a large proportion of manufacturing and assembly work
  • banknotes are counted by bill-counters faster and more accurately
  • shops assistants use point-of-sale computers to checkout shoppers
  • payrolls are done automatically using an accounting program, which previously involved a number of wage clerks
  • jobs that were done by shorthand secretary are now done by managers themselves using computers

Downsizing and Outsourcing

Downsizing refers to reducing the number of employees in a business organization so as to increase revenue. Outsourcing on the other hand means contracting outside the business organization to perform work that done by employees from within the organization

Total Quality management

Refers to the commitment of an organization to improving and satisfying customers' needs continuously.

Automated Production

A large number of jobs have been automated by the use of computers leading to a reduction in the number of job opportunities.

Advantages of Using Automated production

  • it has resulted in a large volume of output per unit time
  • it has reduced the number of employees hence increased revenue
  • Quality of service offered to customers has improved

Disadvantages of Using Automated production

  • The high initial cost of setting up an automated system
  • Automation may lead to unemployment

Effects on Health and Safety

 Using computers for over a long period may lead to:

  • Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI)

Solution: Use ergonomically designed keyboards with wrist supports

  • Back problems caused by poor posture when working with computers

Solution: use adjustable screens, chairs, foot, and backrest

  • eyestrain caused by poor screen positioning, glare from the screen, and light reflection from interior lighting and sunlight

Solution: use of adjustable screens, anti-glare filters, diffused interior lighting, and window blinds

  • General Fatigue and stress caused by prolonged sitting in front of the computer

solution: Take short breaks every hour of working with computers