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Q&A- Networking and Data Communication

Outline any 2 Examples of wireless transmission media       (2marks)

  • Radio waves
  • Microwaves
  • Infrared waves

Edit

An organisation that supplies audiobooks over the internet is moving into a new office building.
 (a) One reason for networking devices is to provide access to the internet.
  (i) Give two other reasons for connecting devices to networks.
 

Share peripherals/devices (e.g. printers, scanners)

Communicate (e.g. email, instant messaging, play games)

Share data (e.g. files/music/videos/backups on servers)

Deploy/update applications
 
 

Edit

(ii) The organisation has chosen wireless connectivity over wired connectivity for its new office building. There is no significant difference in the cost of installing either.
Give three reasons why the organisation might prefer wireless connectivity.

May not have space for cables to be installed

Employees and visitors can move around the building without disconnecting

Adding new users just means giving out the SSID and password

Edit

(b) Routers have an important role in how the internet functions.
  Describe how a router directs data on the internet.

  • Reads the data/packet to find the recipient's address 
  • Has physical connections to >=2 different networks
  • Holds a routing table
  • Stores information about (IP) addresses 
  • Keeps packets inside a network by not forwarding them 
  • Forwards data / directs/forwards/sends packets 
  • Chooses the most efficient path to the next node

Edit

A large comprehensive school has over 500 computers connected to their Local Area Network (LAN) with a connection to the Internet. (a) Describe, in detail, four disadvantages for the school of having a network of computers compared to stand alone computers

 A network manager may need to be employed  which might be expensive

Could be infected with a virus that could spread to all other computers

Security problems receive traffic from other networks

Hackers may gain access as the network only as secure as weakest point of entry to data and steal/destroy

 The server/switch could go down (main cable break) so all workstations on the network are affected

 Can be expensive to set up as Initial cost of servers, communication devices, switches, network software etc. 

 Substantial Initial disruption: drilling holes, fitting trunking, running cables between buildings etc… 

 Can have a slow response time  due to heavy network traffic so users cannot work as effectively

 Detecting network problems can be more difficult on a network i.e difficult to isolate

 Can be slow to log in to a network  As it slow to download software/check password

 Only limited storage space available on network while one has access to all hard disc drive on standalone computer

 Time and effort to set up users o Can just start a standalone and use computer

Edit

Distinguish between microwave and a radiowave transmission and a microwave transmission  (KCSE 2017 PP1)

Microwaves can cover shorter distances. On the contrary, radio waves can travel a long distance. Radio wave is usually propagated through sky mode while microwave uses the line of sight propagation. 

Edit

State examples of wireless transmission media

  • Broadcast Radio
  • Infrared
  • Bluetooth
  • Microwaves
  • Satellite

Edit

State three functions of  a network  operating system

  • Allows creation and management of user accounts
  • Helps in troubleshooting of the network
  • controls access to network resources
  • Provides communication services
  • configures network resources
  •  

 

Edit

Below is a labelled diagram of a star topology network.

(a) Other than the items labelled above state the hardware required by every computer to connect to a network

b) Describe how a packet is transmitted from computer A to computer D, including the role of the switch

 

(a)

  • Hardware required by each computer to connect to a network is a Network Interface Card / NIC / network adapter

(b)

  • Computer A adds computer D’s address to packet
  • Computer A sends packet to switch
  • Switch looks at address on packet  Switch compares to stored list of addresses on network
  • Switch forwards packet to computer D’s address

Edit

State the function of a switch in a computer network

  • It transfers data signals from one node directly to another in the network without broadcasting

Edit

State five functions of network operating system

  • allowing the network to share resources like files and software for printers and computers
  • support the network's implementation of security features
  • controls user accounts
  • supplies network administrators with network monitoring tools.

Edit

State which layer of the TCP/IP model each of the network protocols operates at

HTTP- Application layer

UDP - Transport layer

IP - Internet layer/Network Layer

IMAP - Application layer

HTTP- Application layer

UDP - Transport layer

IP - Internet layer/Network Layer

IMAP - Application layer

Edit

State email protocols

  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
  • Post Office Protocol (POP)
  • Internet Message Access Protocol(IMAP)

Edit

Many organisations provide free public access to a wireless network.
Explain three ethical, legal or data privacy issues that an organisation should be aware of when allowing this access

  • Websites any inappropriate websites ie pornography, drugs, guns,
  • terrorism etc. e.g. is it acceptable for the organisation to allow access to this
  • sort of material when you can’t control who is accessing the service?
  • Time limit amount of time, they may not want to provide indefinite access
  • or may want to charge for access after the time limit has expired.
  • Preventing file sharing and illegal sharing\use of copyrighted materials.
  • Accountability identification of users and actions on a network by
  • preventing anonymous access.
  • Prevention of illegal activities such as terrorism and fraud.
  • The responsibility to keep children safe and protected.
  • Responsibility to keep users (customers) data safe and secure.
  • Spoofing of websites, phishing. Responsibility of organisation to put some kind of protection in place, eg filtering of known fraudulent sites.
  • Recording of private messages or details if not encrypted.
  • Recording of usernames and passwords that the user may also use to access other systems.
  • Responsibility of organisation to secure their systems from possible attack.
  • Sales and marketing providing sales leads to market products.

Edit

Ochieng manages a network for an organisation.
(a) Two computers are assigned the same IP address.
Explain why Ochieng must change the IP address of one of the computers.

  • Devices must have a unique IP address because otherwise, a switch would not know which of the two was the correct device to send packets to

(b) Identify the network topology that requires a server.

  • Star topology

Ochieng manages a network for an organisation.
(a) Two computers are assigned the same IP address.
Explain why Ochieng must change the IP address of one of the computers.

  • Devices must have a unique IP address because otherwise, a switch would not know which of the two was the correct device to send packets to

(b) Identify the network topology that requires a server.

  • Star topology

Edit

List two types of network software

  • Network operating systems
  • Protocols

Edit

Differentiate between logical and physical network topology

Physical topology - the physical arrangement of nodes of a computer network

Examples

  • bus topology
  • ring topology
  • mesh topology
  • star topology

Logical topology- the way data flows in a network

Examples

  • Ethernet
  • Ring

Edit

Give a reason why microwaves are commonly used for point-to-point communication

  • their small wavelength allows conveniently sized antennas to direct them in narrow beams, which can be pointed directly at the receiving antenna

Edit

State the difference between radio waves and microwave transmission

  • Radiowaves are omnidirectional while microwaves propagate in one direction at a time(unidirectional)
  • Radiowaves can be propagated over long distances through sky mode while microwaves require a relay satellite to amplify and retransmit the microwaves signals to the receiver earth station

Edit

State the characteristics of each of the following network topologies (KCSE COMPUTER STUDIES 2021 )

i) Mesh Topology  (2mks)

  • a host/node is connected to one or multiple hosts
  • a   host/node in point to point connection with every other host or a few hosts
  • hosts/nodes in mesh topology also work as relays for other hosts which do not have point-to-point links

(ii) Ring Topology (2mks)

  • each host/node connects exactly to two other hosts
  • data travels around the ring in one direction through all intermediate hosts
  • failure of any host results in the failure of the whole ring

State the characteristics of each of the following network topologies (KCSE COMPUTER STUDIES 2021 )

i) Mesh Topology  (2mks)

  • a host/node is connected to one or multiple hosts
  • a   host/node in point to point connection with every other host or a few hosts
  • hosts/nodes in mesh topology also work as relays for other hosts which do not have point-to-point links

(ii) Ring Topology (2mks)

  • each host/node connects exactly to two other hosts
  • data travels around the ring in one direction through all intermediate hosts
  • failure of any host results in the failure of the whole ring

Edit

Differentiate between Physical and logical topologies

  • Physical topology deals with the placement of nodes
  • Logical topology deals with the data flow  in the network

Edit

Your friend wishes to install a wireless network in his office. Explain to him the difference between guided and unguided media

  • Guided media uses cables to connect to computers whereas unguided media uses waves.

Edit

Differentiate between bus topology and star topology of networks. What are the advantages and disadvantages of star topology over bus topology

  • Bus topology is characterised by common transmission media shared by all the connected nodes
  • Star topology is characterised by a central switching node connected directly to each of the multiple nodes in the network

Advantages of Star topology over Bus topology

  • Faster communication as compared to bus topology
  • Independent line of connection allows freedom of removing or adding nodes

Disadvantages of Star topology over Bus topology

  • Expensive as compared to the bus topology
  • Long cable length

Edit

1 (a) Computer networks are valuable to many businesses and individuals.
(i) State the purpose of network protocols

Any one of:
To allow connected machines to communicate
To provide the rules of communication between two networked devices

Edit

A school intends to install a computer network. Explain three challenges that the school may experience after the installation (KCSE 2021 Computer Studies Q19(b))

Network Failure - when the network becomes faulty or the network is down, users may not access network resources hence operations of an organization may be brought to a standstill

Security Issues:  A computer network can be accessed thus there is an increased chance of hacking

The rapid spread of viruses: Viruses can easily spread to terminals of a computer network which may be very expensive to clear

Cultural and moral effects: adult content may be shared in a networked environment which may be of negative impact on teenagers

 

Edit

Xpat ICT has been tasked to construct a network for an organisation. Explain three factors that the company should consider when selecting the medium for the connectivity (KCSE 2021 Computer Studies Q19c)

  • Security
  • Installation cost
  • bandwidth the medium can support
  • Flexibility e.g wireless media
  • Distance

Edit

Distinguish between a PAN and a LAN

A PAN exist around a single person whereas a LAN covers a larger area

Edit

Give an example of where a PAN could be used

  • connecting wireless headphone to a phone
  • Using a wireless mouse, keyboard etc
  •  

Edit

Distinguish between a client-server and a peer-to-peer network

  • In a client-server network, every device is either a client or a server whereas in a peer-to-peer network each computer has equal responsibility and each has the ability to work as both a server and a client

Edit

Fibre optic cable is available in either single-mode or multi-mode. Outline the characteristics of each mode.

  • Single-mode fibre consists of a narrow core in which all light pulses travel at the same speed and arrive roughly at the same time at the destination.
  • Supports higher bandwidth with less signal loss over a greater distance
  • Multi-mode Multi-mode fibre consists of a larger core in which multiple light pulses can travel down the core.
  • Supports a smaller bandwidth and signals attenuate at a shorter distance than single mode fibre.

Edit

Students are using their wireless notebooks to complete their work in a classroom. They will need to connect wirelessly to a printer to print their answers at the end of the lesson.
Describe how CSMA/CA (Carrier-sense multiple access with collision avoidance) operates in the above scenario.

  • All nodes ‘listen’ for traffic to sense when the network is idle.
  • When a node wishes to transmit, it transmits a ‘request to send’ frame’ (RTS)
  • The intended receiving device will transmit a ‘clear to send’ (CTS) frame if it is available.
  • All other nodes ‘sense’ the network is busy and wait a random amount of time before trying to transmit

Edit

802.3 is the standard for ethernet wired networks and 802.11x is the standard for ethernet
wireless networks.
Outline why standards such as these are important in the development of network devices and
software.

  • Standards specify a set of rules for hardware and/or software used in network communications. Because all manufacturers must adhere to the standards when manufacturing network hardware or software, it means that all devices should be able to communicate, regardless of manufacturer.

Edit

Describe why fibre optic cable would be used for the backbone of the network. (2 marks)

 

Describe how the firewalls can ensure the security of the EmergWA network.

 

Describe a transmission media that would work better in remote areas

The volunteers assisting in an emergency all wear personal protection equipment (PPE) that has an RFID tag sewn into the collar so that they can be tracked if they become lost in a remote location. Identify what RFID is and outline how it works. (3 marks)

  • Fibre optic cable would be used because it has a higher bandwidth, allowing faster communication in the main part of the network. It is also more secure as it cannot be tapped.
  • Firewalls filter the data in and out of a network. Each packet is examined against the filter rules and if a packet is flagged, it is dropped. Only data packets that satisfy the filter rules are allowed through the firewall, thus providing a layer of security for the network.
  • A satellite system would be better as it does not rely on wifi, cellular etc. It is not subject to interference and is reliable in remote conditions
  • Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. An RFID system consists of a tiny radio transponder, a radio receiver and transmitter. When triggered by an electromagnetic interrogation pulse from a nearby RFID reader device, the tag transmits digital data, usually an identifying inventory number, back to the reader. This number can be used to track inventory goods..

Edit

Describe two differences between a switch and a repeater

  • a repeater is a two-port device that amplifies a signal from one port to another
  • a switch is a multiport device that uses a table of addresses to send a signal through the correct port

Edit

Describe the role of a repeater when used in a network.

a repeater will amplify a signal and resend it to overcome reduction in signal strength (attenuation) because over a distance network signals diminish in size/amplitude (are attenuated) due to characteristics of the media.

Edit

Satellite services are used to provide broadband internet connectivity to regional and remote areas of Kenya. State one advantage and one disadvantage of using satellites for this purpose.

Advantages

  • can cover large areas
  • requires minimal land-based transmission support
  • requires minimal infrastructure to provide internet access
  • minimal impact on the environment or humans.

Disadvantages

  • transmission speeds are not comparable with other forms of transmission
  • data costs are expensive by comparison to other forms of transmission
  • expensive to deliver.

Edit

State the primary function of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) protocol.

  • it generates and/or allocates an IP address

Edit

List three characteristics of Internet Protocol version 6 (IP6).

  • has a significantly larger address pool than previous version
  • features a client-side address assignment
  • has built-in encryption
  • enables one device to have many network addresses

Edit

Explain two ways in which an interpreter and a compiler are different.

  • They execute code differently – a compiler reads a complete program at once, an interpreter reads a program line-by-line
  • they identify errors in different ways – a compiler does not allow a program to run until error-free, an interpreter runs the program until the first error.

Edit

Explain each of the strategies listed below.

(a) Phishing

(b) DoS

 

(a) Phishing

  • Phishing is a strategy that encourages a computer user to part with sensitive information such as bank details hence the term ‘phishing’ – i.e. fishing – trying to catch someone out. For example, a perpetrator sends a user an email that appears to be genuine, for example, pretending to be a bank or a lawyer requesting that the user verify bank account details or send money to assist in the completing of a legal case.

(b) DoS

  • DoS is a means of attack on a specific user/system/website which involves overloading a target with too much network traffic resulting in system slowdown, shutdown or a violation of security.

Edit

List two primary functions of a domain name server.

  •  map IP addresses to names and criteria
  • To map directory services
  • Maintain directory of domain names
  • To map URL (web address) to IP address

Edit

When developing a network security policy, it is important to understand the threats that can be made against a network. ‘IP spoofing’ and ‘back doors’ are two techniques that can compromise the security of a network. Describe each of these techniques.

IP spoofing

A technique used to gain unauthorised access to a computer whereby an intruder sends messages to that computer from a false IP address

Back door:
An undocumented method of gaining access to a program, online service or an entire computer system

Edit

Explain, with examples where appropriate, the following five computer terms.

(a) Buffer

(b)batch processing

(c) e-commerce

(d) simulation

(a) Buffer

  • temporary storage or memory which compensates for the difference speed of peripherals and the CPU

(b)batch processing

  • processing doesn’t start until all data is collected
  • JCL (any reference to Job Control Language)
  • no need for user interaction
  • processed all in one go
  • done at “quiet” times
  • e.g. billing, payroll, cheque processing

(c) e-commerce

  • electronic commerce
  • buying and selling products/services using the internet/computer networks

(d) simulation

  • studying the behaviour of a system by using a model/mathematical representation
  • results can be predicted
  • e.g. flight (or other) simulator, modelling hazardous chemical process

(e) Email

  • sending messages from one device to another using computer networks/Internet

Edit

Describe three possible threats to the computers connected to the network and give one way each threat can be reduced or prevented

Virus / trojan / worm / malware

  • Piece of software/code/a program that replicates itself  or causes damage e.g. editing/deleting files

Prevention

  • Running anti-virus/anti-malware software 
  • don’t download from unknown sources
  • don’t click on unknown links

Spyware / malware / keylogger

  • Piece of software/code/a program that records actions/key presses and sends this data to a third party analysis

Prevention

  •  Running anti-spyware/anti-malware software/firewall

Data interception / passive

  • Data is sent to another device and is intercepted by a third party

Prevention

  • Encryption

Phishing

  • An e-mail has a link that when clicked directs the user to a fake website that collects personal data

Prevention

  • Network policy // firewall

Pharming

  • A piece of code installed that redirects user to fake website that collects personal data

Prevention

  • Anti-malware or firewall

Hacker

  • Person attempting to gain unauthorised access to the network/computers/ data/files 
  • unauthorised access and then deleting/editing data/files

Prevention

  • Firewall
  • strong password 
  • biometrics
  • penetration testing

Edit

1. State two ways in which a computer may be used in a healthcare  sector other than record keeping

  • Patient monitoring
  • Used to control medical equipment e.g ultra sound
  • medical research and studies
  • communication and telemedicine

Edit

Describe what is meant by a MAC address.

  • used to identify a device
  • it is a unique (address)
  • it is a static address // it does not change
  • it is set by the manufacturer
  • the first part is the manufacturer ID/number / identifies the manufacturer
  • the second part is the serial number / ID.

 

Edit

Give two other uses of hexadecimal in computer science.

  • colour codes // colour in HTML/CSS
  • error messages
  • locations in memory
  • memory dump // debugging 
  • IP(v6) address
  • ASCII // Unicode
  • assembly language
  • URL.

 

Edit

A company has a website that is stored on a web server.
(a) The website data is broken down into packets to be transmitted to a user.
Describe the structure of a data packet.

  • it has a header that contains the destination address, the packet number, and the originator’s address
  • it has a payload
  • it has a trailer.

 

Edit

A web server has an internet protocol (IP) address. Give three characteristics of an IP address.

  • consists of values between 0–255 / 0–FFF
  • values are separated by full stops/colons
  • it is a unique address
  • can be static or dynamic
  • can be public or private
  • can be IPv4 / have four groups of digits
  • can be IPv6 / have eight groups of digits
  • in IPv6 :: can replace groups of zeros.

Edit

Identify the network component that uses the IP address to send data only to its correct destination

Router

Edit

The website has a uniform resource locator (URL).
An example of a URL is given.
https://www.google.co.ke/index.html
Complete the table to identify the name of each section of the URL.

https :  protocol

google.co.ke: domain name

/index.html: webpage/file name

 

Edit

State two advantages and one disadvantage of having a network of computers, rather than a series of stand-alone machines, in a school classroom.

Advantages

  • Sharing of software and data files
  • Sharing of hardware, e.g. printers
  • Communication

Disadvantages

  • Security of files is more of a problem

Edit

Explain the difference between
(i) serial and parallel,
(ii) simplex and duplex
modes of data transmission.

  • Serial is the transmission of data one bit at a time/through one wire
  • Parallel is the transmission of data more than one bit at a time/many wires
  • Simplex is the transmission of data in one direction only
  • Duplex is the transmission of data in both directions simultaneously

Edit

When data is transmitted it is subject to corruption. Explain how a parity check could be used to determine whether corruption has taken place.

  • Extra bit on each data-byte that
  •  Does not transmit data
  • Makes the number of ones in a byte always even or always odd
  • Error in the transmission of a bit will make the even/odd wrong
  • The problem of two errors in one byte not being found
  • Parity block

Edit

Explain, using examples where appropriate, the meaning of these computer terms

(a) byte ..................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2mks]
(b) compiler ............................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2mks]
(c) handshaking .....................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2mks]
(d) technical documentation ..................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2mks]
(e) simulation .........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2

(a) byte

  • fixed number of bits, 8 bits
  • represents a character


(b) compiler  program

  • converts/changes/translates high-level language into machine code/machine language/low-level language/object code
  • changes each high-level language instruction into machine code instructions
  • produces an independent program capable of being executed by itself
  • all (syntax errors) listed
  • converts the whole program before execution/in one go
  • converts source code to object code

(c) handshaking

  • exchanging of signals to establish communication between two devices/computers e.g. printer and computer, modem and computer

(d) technical documentation

  • documentation to ensure that the system can be maintained/updated/altered/developed/upgraded
  • trouble shooting/correcting errors/correcting faults
  • explanation of what the program does/how the system works
  • contains file structures
  • algorithms/flow charts/pseudo code
  • program listings
  • hierarchical chart

(e) simulation

  • studying the behavior of a system by using a model/represents real-life/mathematical representation
    e.g. flight simulator (or others), hazardous applications results can be predicted

Edit

Give one example of wireless technology

method of transmission e.g

  • blue tooth
  • radio
  • optical
  • satellite
  • infra-red
  • microwave

device e.g.

  • 3G (WAP) mobile phones/mobile phones/cell phone/remote
  • key pad/remote control/keyboard
  • infra-red mouse
  • multimedia mobile handsets/notebooks
  • GPRS (general packet radio service) mobiles
  • WLAN(or WiFi) hotspots sited in public areas - e.g. coffee
  • shops, railway stations, airports, motorway services
  • linked printers
  • PDA's (personal digital assistants)
  • GPS

Edit

Give one benefit and one disadvantage of the use of wireless technology.

Advantages

  • no wires
  • fast/high-speed wireless Internet access
  • WLAN is faster than a modem or mobile
  • WLAN for working at home one day a week/teleworkers
  • see internet content away on the move
  • create and send multimedia messages to mobiles or e-mail
  • picture messaging - send photos/pictures text/sound/recorded
  • greetings from mobiles to mobiles/PCs
  • instant transmission - no busy signals/no searching for phone jacks
  • download e-mail and file attachments on mobile
  • watch live webcast on mobile/hotspot
  • listen to streaming video on mobile/hotspot
  • news/weather/sport/games while on the move
  • access information from mobile anytime
  • send/receive/delete e-mail while on the move
  • wireless Inbox on mobile - to contacts and calendar
  • view business appointments while out of the office on mobile
  • send corporate e-mail while out of the office - even behind a firewall on mobile
  • wireless internet connection from chat rooms for discussions with colleagues while on the move
  • give visual demonstrations from mobile and colleagues watch back at the office

 disadvantages e.g.

  • WLAN speeds are slower than Net access at work/narrow band width
  • any one within the WLAN nodes range with an appropriate device can use your WLAN and broad band link
  • any one who walks past your house or WLAN linked into a corporate system can access sensitive information or credit card details
  • 3G phones not compatible with 2G phones
  • Blue tooth - has limited range
  • blocked signal/distorted signal/weak signal/lag
  • health problems from microwaves

Edit

Give one advantage using a star network rather than a ring network.

  • star - if one computer goes down the others can still be used
  • ring - if one computer goes down the others can not be used

Edit

Explain what is meant by the two terms download speed and upload speed

download speed :
– speed at which information/data is transferred FROM server/Internet
– speed at which information/data is transferred TO the user’s computer
upload speed :
– speed at which information/data is transferred FROM user’s computer
– speed at which information/data is transferred TO the Internet/server

Edit

Give two advantages of using broadband rather than dial-up

  • an use Internet connection and telephone at the same time
  • much faster data transfer speed
  • always “on”
  • charged for number of bytes/flat rate per month rather than actual time on line
  • more bandwidth

Edit

Give two different scenarios when a fast broadband connection is essential.

– when transferring large files/attachments with emails
– when streaming music/video files/bit streaming
– when using VoIP/video conferencing
– software updates
– online transactions
– Using VLE (Virtual Learning Environment)

Edit

Give one advantage of a star network when compared to a ring network.

if one station/cable fails, others are not affected
easier to identify faults when using star topologies
it is easier to expand this type of network
performance doesn’t deteriorate under load

Edit

Describe how a FRID works.

RFID stands for radio frequency identification. There is an RFID reader and tag.RFID is used in contactless credit and debit cards as well as in some hotel room cards. Inside an RFID tag is a chip that contains a small amount of memory. The chip is attached to a coil of wire which acts as an antenna. When an RFID tag is scanned, the reader emits radio waves which are picked up by the tag’s antenna. The power induced in the tag’s antenna from these waves is enough to power the chip which then uses its antenna to emit its own radio wave, which contains the information held on the chip. This wave is picked up by the reader which decodes the information and returns the information to a computer.

Edit

Website data is broken down into packets to be transmitted to a user. Describe the structure of a data packet.

It has a header

  • that contains the destination address
  • that contains the packet number
  • that contains the originator’s address

It has a payload

It has a trailer.

 

Edit

Give three characteristics of an IP address.

  • consists of values between 0–255 / 0–FFF
  • values are separated by full stops/colons
  • it is a unique address
  • can be static or dynamic
  • can be public or private
  • can be IPv4 / have four groups of digits
  • can be IPv6 / have eight groups of digits
  • in IPv6: can replace groups of zeros.

Edit

A workshop has a lot of heavy machinery operating throughout the day and requires a cable to connect a workstation to a switch. Which of the following, unshielded twisted pair (UTP) or shielded twisted pair (STP) cable, would be the more suitable? Justify your response.

Shielded twisted pair cable:
A twisted pair cable is made up of four pairs of twisted copper wires, a shielded twisted pair cable applies a shield to each one of the pairs on a cable or to all of the pairs together. This shield can reduce EMI (electromagnetic interference), which would be emitted from heavy machinery. This increased data transmission quality in the workshop. STP can also reduce crosstalk.

Edit

Outline a factor that can influence the performance of a network.

  • The different factors that can influence the performance of a network include: bandwidth, network design, data collisions, and excess broadcast traffic.
  • The bandwidth can influence through the method of transmission and medium used

Edit