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Q&A- Databases

(a) Like "*kenya*"

  • Returns the records of all countries that contain the string "kenya"

(b) Like "*ina"

  • Returns records for all countries/regions whose names end in "ina", such as China and Argentina.

(c) Like U*

  • Returns records for all countries/regions whose names start with "U", such as UK, USA, and so on.

(d) Not Like U*

  • Returns records for all countries/regions whose names start with a character other than "U".

(e) >= "Mexico"

  • Returns records of all countries/regions, beginning with Mexico and continuing through the end of the alphabet.

(f) Like "[A-D]*"

  • Returns records for countries/regions whose names start with the letters "A" through "D".

(g) "USA" Or "UK"

  • Returns records for USA and UK.

https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/office/examples-of-query-criteria-3197228c-8684-4552-ac03-aba746fb29d8

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(i) Referential integrity

  • Two entities that are related require that a foreign key must have a matching primary key

(ii) Entity integrity

  • Entity integrity specifies that the Primary Keys on every instance of an entity must be kept, must be unique and must have values other than NULL

(b) Describe how data integrity can improve the process of database management. (2 marks)

  • Data integrity is the maintenance of, and the assurance of, data accuracy and consistency over its entire life-cycle and is a critical aspect to the design, implementation, and usage of any system that stores, processes, or retrieves data
  • The overall intent of any data integrity technique is the same: ensure data is recorded exactly as intended (such as a database correctly rejecting mutually exclusive possibilities)

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  • It ensures that each row has a unique and non-null primary key

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  • It requires that a foreign key must have a matching primary key or it must be null

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Domain integrity - ensures that all data in  a field contain valid values

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  • an attribute/combination of attributes chosen to ensure that the records in a table are unique

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An action query is used to modify, add, or delete data in a database whereas a select query is used to retrieve data from a database based on specified criteria but does not make any changes to the data.

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  • Data Integrity: they provide ways or mechanisms for enforcing data integrity constraints, such as referential integrity. If a record in the parent table is deleted, related records in the child table also get deleted. This ensures accurthe acy and consistency of data stored in the database
  • Data Security
  • Concurrency control
  • Reduces data redundancy
  • Data retrieval and querying
  • Data indexing
  • Data consistency and acid transaction
  • Data backup and recovery
  • Data sharing and collaboration
  • Convenient data maintenance

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