Q&A-KCSE Computer Studies Paper 1

Aeroplanes now use Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to determine their location.

Describe how the computer on board the aeroplane uses GPS to find its exact location

Give two benefits of using GPS in this application

Describe how the computer on board the aeroplane uses GPS to find its exact location

satellites transmit signals to onboard computers
computers receive/interpret these signals
system depends on very accurate timing/use of atomic clocks
each satellite transmits data indicating location and time
computer in aeroplane calculates location based on at least three satellites
at least 24 satellites in operation at any one time
position accurate to within one metre
can also calculate altitude of aeroplane
ref to “triangulation”:

Give two benefits of using GPS in this application

safer as the known location is exact/more accurate
reduces the possibility of pilot error
allows accurate estimation of arrival time
display and guide the pilot to the nearest airport in case of emergency

Sarah uses a range of computing devices to complete her studies, including a desktop computer at home, a laptop at school and her mobile phone. Outline two advantages of cloud computing for Sarah.

Cloud computing refers to the delivery of on-demand computing resources over the internet. Instead of relying on a local server or personal computer, cloud computing allows users to access and utilize a wide range of computing services and resources hosted on remote servers.

  • Sarah could keep all of her files in the cloud and easily access these with her devices. This way she does not have to keep different version on her desktop and laptop.
  • Flexibility she could access the files from other devices such as the library etc.
  • Disaster recovery if she accidently dropped or damaged a device – all files would be easy to access.

State Advantages of online booking

  • It prevents double-booking which could happen in paper-based booking system
  • The customer gets immediate feedback on the availability of seats
  • The customer can make  booking at any time of the day
  • Emails provided by customers during booking can be used by companies for advertisement

List any two components of an expert system                                (2marks)

  • Knowledge base – is the systems’ database of knowledge about a particular subject. It contains relevant facts, beliefs, assumptions and procedures for solving a particular problem
  • Inference engine – this is the software that controls the search for knowledge in the knowledge base and produces conclusions. It takes the problem posed by the user and seeks to analyze it in order to arrive at a conclusion.
  • User interface- this is the display screen that enables the user interact with the system.

One characteristic of a robot is its mechanical structure.
State two other characteristics of a robot

  • It has electrical components.
  • It is programmable.


Suggest two advantages of using robots, instead of humans, to build cars in the factory.

  • more efficient than a human
  • more accurate than a human
  • can lift larger and heavier equipment than a human
  • can replace humans working in a dangerous environment
  • reduces running costs, such as wages and overheads
  • can produce consistent results/output
  • can work 24 hours a day // do not need to take breaks.


State two computer-based careers  that have arisen as a result of  computer-based data processing in a factory    (2 marks)

System analyst

Web designers

Network administrators

Database administrators


Computer technicians

KCSE Computer Studies Paper 1, 2001



1.Compare the two types of diskettes used in microcomputers in terms of physical size and densities.    (2mks)

2.Why is it necessary to have a UPS in a computer laboratory?  (2mks)

3 a) Explain what is meant by batch processing   (1mk)

   b) Give one advantage and one disadvantage of batch processing ( 2mks)

4. List any four high level programming languages  (2mks)

5.A 3 by 4 matrix M is to be added to another 3 by 4 matrix array N so as to give a third 3 by 4 matrix array P.  Using a high level programming language, write a program segment that assigns the sum of M and N to P.(4mks)

6. The first column in the table below contains the formulae as stored into the cell F10 of a spreadsheet.  Enter the formulae, as they would appear when copied to the cell M20 of the same spreadsheet.  (3mks)


Formula in F10

Formula in m20

=D10* E10


=A$ 25


=$ D$13



7.  Give three advantages of separating data from the applications that use the data in database design. (3mks)

8.  Explain the impact of information on organizations in each of the following areas:  (2mks)

   a) Competition

   b) Pace of growth

9. a) List any four tasks that an electronic spreadsheet should be able to perform other than calculations  (2mks)

    b) Explain what is meant by automatic recalculation as used in a spreadsheet.(1 mk)

10. Describe the functions of the following computer hardware components:

   a)Mouse                     (2 ½  mks)

   b)Scanner.                   (1 ½ mks)

11. a)State two differences between Disk Operating System (DOS) and WINDOWS operating system.

 b. i) Define the term application software  (1mk)

     ii) Give one example of application software (1mk)

12. a)  Give one difference between internal and external commands in Disk Operating System.   (2mks)

      b)  Name two DOS commands that may be used for checking disk errors.  (2mks)

13. Explain how a paragraph can be moved from one place to another in word-processing. 2mks)

14.  Define the term structured programming. (2mks)


Answer question 15 and any other three questions from this section.

15.a)  What is meant by each of the following terms:

 i)   pseudocode        (1 ½ mks)

  ii)  Flowchart           (1 ½ mks)

b) a program is required to list the first 1000 numbers in the series:  2, 4, 6, 8,

10. Draw a flowchart and write a program that can be carried out this task.   (12 mks)

16. The following car details are to be entered in a database; make, date-of-manufacture, colour and cost.

 a) Prepare a suitable database structure showing field names and their field types   (5mks)

 b) Explain how you index the data such that cars of the same make and colours are together   (2mks)

 c)  Write a statement that can be used to select cars of the colour green        (2 mks)

 d) Give an instruction that would;

  i)select cars whose cost lie between 500,000/= and 1,000,000/=  (3 mks)

 ii)Determine the average cost of all cars         (3mks)

17.  a)The diagram below represents the essential features o a computer system. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow:


i)Name the components (4mks)





ii) On the diagram above, indicate the direction of data flow using arrows.  (3mks)

b) Name the three types of buses in a computer system (3mks)

c) Explain how CPU registers may be used to carry out a basic calculation such as:2 + 7 = 9

d) Name two computers output devices. (1 Mark)

18. a)State three ways in which computer technology may affect employment patterns in organizations   (3mks)

b) State three ways in which computer technology may affect employment patterns in organizations (3mks)

c)Suggest three strategies that can be employed to manage resistance to change  (3mks)

d) Give three advantages of computerization in an organization.  (3mks)

19. a)In a computer based information system, state the purpose of the following files and give one example where such a file may be required in a school.                (8mks)

i) report file

ii)Back-up file

iii)Reference file

iv) Sort file

b) State three precautions that should be taken to ensure that diskettes are well stored.  (3 mks)

c)  Distinguish between “serial” and Indexed sequential” file organization methods.  (2mks)

d)  Distinguish between binary and octal number systems and give an example of each  (2mks)




1.Describe the purpose of each of the following computer functional units:    (2mks)

    a) Control

    b) Storage

2.Explain how each of the following would affect the suitability of a room for use as a computer room: (2mks)

a) Burglar proofed door

b)Availability of taps and sinks in the room

3.State three data representation codes used in computers       (3mks)

4.State two types of documentation in program development and give the purpose of each.     (4mks)

5.Suppose a 5 element array A contains the values 9, 12, 17, 7 and 20.  Find the value in A after executing the loop below:

            Repeat for k = 1 to 4

            Set A [k +1]: = A [k]

                        [End of loop]            (3mks)

6.State any three activities that occur in a program compilation process  (3mks)

7.The formula = k20 + P$ 18 was typed in cell L21 and then copied to cell M24 of a spreadsheet. Write the formula as it appears in cell M24.(2mks)

8.State two ways in which a computer may be used in the efficient running of a hospital (2mks)

9.List three disadvantages of using the traditional file management method          (3mks)

10.Give one disadvantage of a single processor multi-user system    (1mk)

11. List three differences between a micro-computer and a super-computer.         (3mks)

12.State and explain two reasons why word processing is one of the most common applications of many computer users.   (2mks)

13. write- 1 in twos complement notation in byte form                                        (4mks)

14.Explain the following input/output terms as used in computer systems. Give an example for each        (4mks)

  a) Read

  b) Write

15.State two disadvantages of networking.


Answer question 16 and any other three questions from this section.

16.The following flowchart can be used to list the odd numbers between 0 and 100



a)Write a program segment for the flowchart using a high level language.  (7mks)

b)What would be the output from the flowchart if the statement in the decision box is changed to:  (3 mks)

i)          Odd = 100

ii)         Odd< 100

iii)        Odd> 100

c)  Modify the flowchart so that it prints only the sum of the odd number between 0 and 100  (5mks)

17.a)  List five precautions that can be taken to protect data stored in diskettes   (5mks)

b)State and explain two precautions that can be taken to help recover data lost through accidental erasure. (4mks)

   c) Describe each of the following data processing methods:    (6mks)

   i) Batch processing

   ii) Distributed processing

   iii) Multiprogramming

18. a)  i)  What is a computer keyboard?      (1 mk)

           ii)  ist four types of keys found on a computer keyboard.  Give an example of each(4mks)

     b) Give four differences between present day’s computers and the older generation of computers   (4mks)

     c)   i) State three advantages and one disadvantage of using a laser printer.  (4mks)

           ii) Distinguish between a line printer and a page printer             (2mks)

19  a) Identity three public Universities and three National Polytechnics in Kenya where further computer training is offered. In case, state the highest level of qualification that can be acquired in computer training. (6 mks)

b) Distinguish between “Job replacement” and “Job displacement” in reference to computerization.  (2mks)

c) Give four reasons why a firm may decide to computerize its operations.   (4mks)

d) An individual has a right to demand a guarantee of privacy of personal information stored on a computer.Give three such types of information.  (3mks)

20. a)  Give three comparisons of the traditional file management method of typing a document on a typewriter against using a word processor.     (6mks)

      b)  i) Define the term spreadsheet (1 mk)

            ii) Give two examples of spreadsheet packages available in the market today        (2mks)

      c) Explain the following terms as used in a spreadsheet:

             i)  What if …analysis         (2 mks)

             ii) Cell                (1 mk)

             iii) Formula  (1mk)

             iv)  Pie chart                                                                      (2 mks)



Answer all the questions in this section

1.Computer systems are built from three types of physical components: processors,memories and 1/O devices.

  a) State two tasks of a processor                                                            (2 mks)

  b)State function of 1/O devices                                                               (1 mk)

2. Threats to the safety of computer systems take many forms such as:  white-collar crime, natural disasters, vandalism and carelessness.Give on way as to how each of these forms of threats can be controlled.    2 mks)

3.a) Explain the term nibbles as used in data representation in computers

   b)Perform the following binary arithmetic giving the answers in decimal notation.     (3 mks)

       i)1110.01111 + 11010001 .011

        ii) 1001011.011 - 111.111

     4  a)  Distinguish between machine and assembly language           (2mks)

         b) State the type of translator necessary for a program written in:         (2mks)

            i) High level language

           ii)Assembly language                                                    

5. Briefly explain the purpose of the following types of program documentation: (3mks)

    a)  User manual

     b) Reference guide

     c) Quick reference guide

6. State any two features of a user-friendly program.      (2mks)

7 a) Distinguish between labels and formulae with respect to spreadsheets (2mks)

   b) Consider the entries in the cells below.














State the value displayed in cell C13                                      (2 mks)

8.List three differences between wide area Networks (WAN) and Local Area Networks (LAN)      (3mks)

9. Study the flowchart segment below and state the last value printed from the flowchart.         (2 mks)

10.  a) What is an expert system                                                        (1mk)

      b)State any two components of an expert system                     (2mks)

11. give two reasons why optical disks are better storage media compared to floppy diskettes  (2mks)

12.What are the Dos commands used for the following?                       (2mks)

            a) Changing directories

            b) Viewing directories

           c)  Renaming directories

            d) Deleting a directory

13. Distinguish between copying and moving text                                  (2mks)

14. a) Name two methods of paper orientation                                (1mk)

     b)Name two keys used to delete text in a document   (1 mk)

15.Name two features a Database package                                             (2mks)


Answer question and any other three questions from this section

16.       Study the flowchart below and answer the questions that follow.

 a)Write a high-level language program for the above flowchart (7mks)

 b)List the outputs of the flowchart above                                 (5 mks)

 c) Modify the flowchart so that it adds up all its outputs and displays the sum obtained  (3mks)

17. A computer specification has the following details:

  •  Pentium II
  • 1.44 MB floppy disk drive
  • 20 GB hard disk
  • Full multimedia
  • 17” SVGA monitor
  • Pre-installed operating system
  • Pre-installed office suite

     a)  What is meant by

       i)  1.44 MB floppy disk drive?

       ii)20 GB hard disk?

      iii) 17” SVGA monitor

     b) Which operating system might be pre-installed in this computer and why?         (2mks)

     c) List three multimedia components                                          (3 mks)

      d) i)  what is meant by computer aided manufacture?        (2 mks)

          ii)  Give two examples of computer aided design software.       (2mks)

18. a)Give three examples of network software                                          (3mks)

     b)List any three items that may be referred to as data terminal equipment in a network     (3 mks)

     c)Briefly explain the following terms as used in networking   (4mks)

      i) Remote communication

      ii)Distributed processing

      d) State three advantages and two disadvantages of mesh network topology. (5mks)

19. a)  a company has decided to computerize their operations.  They have decided to purchase package instead of developing their own programs.  Give three advantages and two disadvantages of this approach. 5mks)

      b) i) explain why a value such as 611233444555 may be displayed as ######### When typed in a cell of a spreadsheet (2mks)

       ii)  How can the problem in b (i) above be corrected?      (2mks)

      c) With reasons, briefly describe the most appropriate type of printer output device for the output of:  (6mks)

      i) Customer invoices on multi-part stationery

     ii) Letters to customers

     iii)Detailed engineering designs

20. a)  Distinguish between the following pair of terms                                (6mks)

      i) Data verification and data validation

      ii)Data encryption and passwords





OCT./NOV. 2005



Answer all the questions in this section.

1. a) What is disk formatting?                                                        (1mk)

b) Indicate whether the following devices are used for input or output  (2mks)

i) Plotter

ii)Light pen


iv)Visual display unit

2.a)Explain why the following and give one reason why they are not allowed in a computer laboratory. (2mks)

b) For each of the following give one reason why they are not allowed in a computer laboratory.  (2mks)

i) Smoking

ii)Eating foods

3.Distinguish between Real, integer and Character data types as used in programming (3 mks)

4.The cells k3 to K10 of a worksheet contain remarks on student’s performance such as very good, good, fair and fail depending on the average mark.  Write a formula that can be used to count all students who have the remark “very good”      (3mks)

5.a) State the purpose of registers in a computer system               (1mk)

b)Name two multiprogramming operating systems                   (2 mks)

6.a) A series file comprises of records placed in positions 1 to 10.  State the position of the end of file marker.      (1mk)

  b)State the purpose of each of the following: (2mks)

 i)File server software

ii)Communication software

7.a) Name the control structure depicted by the flowchart below.                   (1 mk)


b)Explain the following terms as used in program implementation.      (2mks)

 i)Parallel running

 ii)Direct change over

8. Consider the linear arrays:

 i) AAA (5:50)

 ii)BBB (-5:10)

 iii)CC (18)

Find the number of elements in each array (3mks)

9.Define the term artificial intelligence  (2 mks)

10.Name two types of relationships that can be applied in database design  (2mks)

11.Explain binary Coded Decimal code of data representation (1 mk)



 c)Word wrap

12.Outline two ways in which a computer can be used in hotels               (2 Marks)

13.a)Explain Binary Coded Decimal code of data representation (1marks)

 b)Write the number 4110 in BCD notation (1 mk)

14.Arrange the following data units in ascending order of size.

   BYTE, FILE, BIT, NIBBlE     (2mks)

15.State two health issues that may result from prolonged use of computers     (2 mks)


16. a) State the stage of program development in which  (4 mk)

i) A flowchart would be drawn

 ii)The programmer would check whether the program does as required

 iii)The user guide would be written

iv)The requirements specifications would be written.

b)State the output of the following flow chart segment                  (1mk)

c) i)Draw a flowchart to compute the combined resistance ® of two resistors R1 and R2 in parallel using the formula;


ii)Write a program using Pascal or C languages for the flowchart in C (i) above. (5 ½ mks)

17. a)List three paragraph formatting activities in word processing  (3mks)

 b)Differentiate between bolding and highlighting text (2mks)

c) The following information shows the income and expenditure for “bebayote “ matatu for five days.  The income from Monday to Friday was Kshs. 4,000, 9,000, 10, 000, 15,000 and 12,000 respectively while the expenditure for the same period was Kshs.  2,000, 3,000, 7,000, 5,000 and 6,000 respectively

i)Draw a spreadsheet that would contain the information.  Indicate the rows as 1, 2, 3 …. And the columns as a, B, C    (4mks)

ii)State the expression that would be used to obtain:

 I Monday’s profit  (2mks)

 II Total income (2mks)

III)Highest expenditure (2mks)

18.a) Subtract 0112  from 10012 (1mk)

 b)Using two’s compliment, subtract 7 from 4 and give the answer in decimal notation (4mks)

c) Convert

i) 91B16  to octal    (3mks)

ii) 3768   to hexadecimal   (3mks)

iii) 9.62510 to binary  (4 mks)

19.a) Explain what the following DOS commands will do when executed.

    i)  A: \copy *.* B:    (2 mks)

   ii)   C: \> ERASE*. DOC   (2mks)

  iii)   b: \> Md EXAMS  (2mks)

 b)  i)  With the aid of a diagram, explain hierarchical (tree) network topology   (3mks)

  ii)List two advantages and two disadvantage of hierarchical network topology.  (4 mks)



20. a)Name and explain the function of the keyboard keys represented by the following symbols.





  b) Simulation is one of the application areas of computers        

  i) What is meant by the term simulation      (1mk)

  ii)Name two application areas of simulation   (2 mks)

 iii) State three advantages of computer based simulation (3 mks)

 c) Explain three ways in which computers have impacted education (3mks)

Computer Studies KCSE 2006 Paper 1


1.What is meant by

    a)Analogue data

     b)Digital data                           (4 mks)

2. Distinguish between transcription and transposition types of errors and give an example of each  (4mks)

3. a)What are peripheral devices?  (1mk)

   b)Give two examples of peripheral devices  (1mk)

4a)What meant by the term user-friendly as used in software development? (1mk)

  b)Distinguish between the terms single-tasking and multi-user as used in operating systems  (2mks)

5.What actions should be taken in case of a fire outbreak in the computer laboratory?  (4mks)

6a) What is an Internet Service Provider?    (1mk)

  b) An employee in a business company is charged with the responsibility of putting the company advertisements on the Internet.

 i) State the professional title of the employee. (1mk)

ii) Give an example of software used by this employee to carry out the above task.    (1mk)

7.Differentiate between COM ports and LPT ports     (2mks)

8.Explain two ways in which ICT can enhance commerce.  (2mks)

9. Explain the following software terms:

    a) Portability       (1 mk)

    b) Modularity      (1 mk)

10. a) State two application areas of desktop publishing software. (2mks)

     b) Explain the following graphic terms:                                                                                     

     i) Rotate (1 mk)

    ii) Crop  (1mk)

12. a)List two arithmetic operations that can be performed on a row of numeric data in a word processing table.    (1 mk)

     b) In each case of (a) above, write the expression used.  (2mks)

13. List two methods of gathering information during the system development process   (2mks)

14.Name three types of optical disks.(3mks)

15.The diagram below shows a formatted plate surface of a storage disk.




            Shade and label:

            a)         one sector                                                                                ( 1mk)

            b)         One block                                                                                (1mk)


Answer question 16 and any other three questions from this section in the  space provided

16 a) List two examples of:

       i) Third generation languages    (2mks)

       ii) Object oriented languages    (2 mks)

b) Draw a flowchart to compare three non-equal numeric values A, B, C and prints the largest of the three. (11 mks)

17 a) One of the functions of an operating system is job scheduling.  Explain what is meant by job scheduling.   (1mk)

    b)List and explain three types of user interfaces.                      (6 mks)

    c)Describe the following categories of software:

       i) Firmware                 (1mk)

       ii) Proprietary software  (1mk)

     d) a new company XYZ intends to go into the business of desktop publishing. Advise the company on three computer hardware system specification features to consider as a measure of enhancing performance. (6 mks)

18. a) distinguish between the following sets of terms as used in spreadsheets.        (2mks)

     i)Worksheet and workbook

     ii) Filtering and sorting

     b) State one way in which a user may reverse the last action taken in a spreadsheet package.        (1 mk)

     c)The following is a sample of a payroll. The worksheet row and column headings are marked  1, 2, 3, .  and A, B, C.  respectively





Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

1.Describe the computer booting process.    (2 mks)

2. State the functions of the following keys on the computer keyboard   (2 mks)

  a) Backspace

  b)Insert (ins)

3. Jane has noticed the following problems with her computer keyboard    (2mks)

  • It is taking a longer time to start-up;
  • It is often hanging;
  • Applications are taking longer to load.

 State three possible causes of these problems and how they can be solved (3mks)

4 a)Define authenticity as used in software selection  (1mk)

  b) List four ways of acquiring software in an organization     (2mks)

5 some of the storage disk available are:  zip disks, 3 ½ inch floppy disks, DVDs and 5 ¼ inch floppy disks. Arrange these devices in ascending order of storage capacity.    (2mks)

6.You have been asked to change your computer password. State a precaution you need to take in order to avoid each of the following:           

a) Forgetting the password     (1mk)

b) Hacking       (1mk)              

7.State four benefits of using a computer in a school library   (2 mks)

8. Using six bits, find the two’s complement of -2310.     (4 mks)

9. Explain data series, axis and legends as used in spreadsheet charts.  (3mks)

  • Data
  • Axis
  • Legend                       

10. a) Describe the term data integrity.                                            (2 mks)

     b) State four situations in which data may lose integrity.           (2mks)

11.State the function of each of the following:

            a)Network interface card                                                           (1 mk)

            b)Network protocol                                                                    (1 mk)

           c)Hub                                                                                         (1mk)  

12. List four types of publications that can be designed by using desktop publishing software.   (2mks)

13. Differentiate between the following pair of terms as used in database design:

    a)  Input mask and design.                                                           (2 mks)

    b) Table and query                                                                      ( 2mks)

14. List four factors to be considered when purchasing an operating system.     (2mks)

15   Write an algorithm to compute the area of a triangle.   (2mks)


Answer question 16 and any other three questions from this section in the spaces provided

16. Study the flowchart below and answer the questions that follow


i) Name the control structures used in the flowchart                 (2mks)

ii) Determine the values of M, N, P and Q.                                ( 4 mks)

M………………………….. N………………………..

P ………………………….. Q ………………………

  iii) Write the pseudo code for the flowchart   (7mks)

 b)  List four functions of an assembler    (2 mks)

17. Define the following web related terms:       

 i)  Web browser   (1mk)

 ii)  Hyperlink      (1mk)

iii) Hypertext document                (1mk)

b)  List six activities performed on the web      (3mks)

c) An institution has ten stand alone computers

i)  Suggest with reasons the most appropriate topology required to inter-connect the computers.   (3mks)

ii) State the necessary steps required to connect the computers to the  internet.      (4mks)

d) Below is an email address:




Name the parts labeled:




18.A computer C directory has folders for form 1, form 2, Form 3 and form 4.  Each class has student’s folders labeled according to their number.  The students create their own folder for the subject the are studying based on the table shown below


Form 1

Form 2

Form 3

Form 4











a)Assuming there is one student per class, draw the corresponding directory tree structure.  (6 mks)

b) i)  a form four student wants to create a folder to store her project. State the path for that project folder.(2 mks)

ii)Suggest how the student can ensure that:

                        1.         Work is not lost in case the hard disk fails.                (1mk)

                        2.         The project is not copied by other students.               (1mk)

c) i).  Other than I/O devices, list other three devices under the control of the operating system.                                                  (3mks)

 ii)Explain any one of the devices named in C (i) above            (1mk)

d)Define the term trouble shooting    (1mk)

19. A manager wishes to replace the current manual system with a computerized one

 a)Describe three main areas that must be evaluated to justify the  replacement   (6mks)

b) List the three areas that would be considered in the requirements specifications.      (3mks)

c)State and explain three ways that can be followed to replace the current system    (6mks)

20. a)  A head teacher keeps the following student details in a database:  Name, Address, Town, Date of Birth, Marks scored, Fees paid.

i)Name the most appropriate primary key. Give a reason      (2mks)

ii)For each item in the student’s details above, indicate its most appropriate data type as used in the database.           (3mks)

iii)Explain why input screens are better data entry designs than entering data directly to a table.        (2mks)

b)List two career opportunities associated with databases.       (2mks)

c)Distinguish between:

i) A table in a word-processing application and a table in a database application (2mks)

ii)Mouse pointer and insertion point.    (2mks)

d)Outline the steps to be followed in order to merge cells in a word processing table.    (2mks)

  1. (a)State the meaning of the term disk defragmentation as used in computers  (1mk)

  • The process of rewriting parts of a file to contiguous sectors on a disk


  1. Identify any computer output device suitable for each of the following tasks:
  1. Generating receipts where carbon copies are required  (1mk)
  • Impact printers e.g dot matrix

     b) an architectural drawing where precision is required         (1mk)

  • Plotter

(c ) producing document output for a visually impaired person (1mk)

  • Braille/speakers
  1. Pesa Tele has offices in Nairobi and Kampala connected in a network . the management is convinced that someone is illegally gaining access to the data in their computers. State three ways in which the company can overcome this problem (3mks)
  • Encryption
  • Firewall
  • Audit trail/tracking
  • Use of passwords
  • Limit the number of log-in attempts
  1. Explain two ways in which the use of internet could make reporting of corruption easier (4mks)
  • Interactive: the internet based technology enables real-time dialogue hence instantaneous reporting of cases
  • Outreach: the technology allows the coverage of wide areas
  • Social mobilization : it easy to create a network of people with similar concerns
  • Anonymity : it is easier to report corruption without being  known
  • Security: the message sent reaches destination without being intruded
  1. State ways in which software errors can be prevent during program development
  • Use of antivirus software
  • Performing system update frequently
  • Testing the software before implementation
  • Proper training